Gender discourse in modern English and Russian belles-letters
theme of the research work is «Gender discourse in modern English and Russian belles-letters». According to many linguists, the concept of «discourse» is very helpful in understanding why men must resist negative stereotypes of their gender imposed by those with a negative mind-set. Discourse is a term that is often used synonymously with «ideology». However, it is much more than this, and is a central concept in trying to make sense of the contested area of understanding gender.study of language and gender has increasingly become the study of discourse and gender. While phonological, lexical, and other kinds of linguistic analysis continue to be influential, the interdisciplinary investigation of discourse-level phenomena, always a robust area of language and gender scholarship, has become the central approach of the field. Hundreds of books, articles, and dissertations in numerous disciplines examine the intersection between discourse and gender from a variety of analytic perspectives. This proliferation of research presents problems for any attempt at a comprehensive overview, for although many of these studies are explicitly framed as drawing on the insights of discourse analysis, their approaches are so different that it is impossible to offer a unified treatment of discourse analysis as a tool for the study of language and gender.interest in literary texts is of particular significance for some of the broader questions among students. Research on adolescent patterns of participation and achievement in education generally, and in literacy more particularly, have indicated that there are significant numbers of boys who are falling behind the levels of achievement of their female peers. Understanding the role interest plays in initiating and maintaining literacy skills will help address this problem. Does student engagement with particular texts depend upon students coming to the task with a well-developed interest in literature? Does reading further into a text depend on the level of interest aroused when students first encounter the text? Are these responses to the texts different for boys and girls? These phenomena determine the topicality of our research work.paper is a result of a keen and long-lasting interest of its author in applied linguistics in combination with the factors that enable people to interpret fairy tales in both native and foreign language. The question is whether on the basis of discourse analysis theories it is possible to make it easy for foreign language learners to read texts with full comprehension., the aim of our diploma work is to define the role of gender in discourse through English, Russian and Kazakh belles-letters, exactly fairy-tales.order to achieve the aim of the work it is necessary to decide the following objectives:
·to look through the literature;
·to demonstrate the approaches of the investigation the notion;
·to make discourse analysis of belles-letters (fairy tales);
·to make the comparative analysis of gender differentiation in Kazakh, Russian and English fairy tales.object of the research is gender discourse in belles-letters. subject to reveal discourse of gender differentiation in English, Russian and Kazakh fairy tales.
To achieve the object of the work the following objectives of the research can be pointed out: discourse analysis, quantitative and qualitative analyses, complex analysis of literary work, descriptive and comparative methods.
Scientific novelty of the research paper is in the fact that the given paper is the attempt to define the gender discourse in belles-letters, exactly in fairy tales of different languages as English, Russian and Kazakh.
The theoretical and methodological basis consist of the analyzing of the research of the Т. Van Dake, J. Austin, J. Searle, M. Fuko, E. Goffmana, S.I. Vinogradova, B.P. Parshin, V.Z. Demjankova, J.S. Stepanova on the given subject «discourse». We have taken for the analyses the following works: in English — English Folktales (edited by D. Keding and A. Douglas): «The Pottle of Brains», «The Old Woman and her Pig», «The Farmer and the Cheese», «Jack Turnip», «Lazy Jack»; in Russian — Михаил Евграфович Салтыков-Щедрин «Недреманное око», «Дикий помещик», «Баран непомнящий», «Повесть о том, как один мужик двух генералов прокормил»; in Kazakh — «Красавица Кункей», «Три сына бедняка», «Чудесный сад».writing the research work we used such methods as selecting of bibliography, textual and interpreting analysis and comparison of the literary works of the examined period of time.
The practical significance of the research consists of use of scientific — theoretical results and the fact, that actual material can be used at reading lectures on the course of English Literature and drawing up of the manuals and various grants. structure: of the work is presented by Introduction, Theoretical and Practical parts, Conclusion, List of used literature (bibliography) and Appendix. The whole work consists of 62 pages. The theme, actuality, the aim, object, subject, methods of investigation of the work are identified in the introduction. In the first part description of the term ‘discourse’ itself, including examples of its various types and functions are described. It also presents a thorough analysis of the function of a gender in belles-letters, a historical background of how scholars became interested in the use of language, the manners in which they examined speech and writing, as well as it depicts the division of discursive devices. The practical part includes the comparative analysis of Kazakh, Russian and English fairy tales. The work is summed up in the conclusion.
1. Theories of discourse as theories of gender: discourse analysis in language and gender studies
.1 The concept of discourse in linguistics
media, being a component of interiorization, plays the important role in the course of gender socialization. Occurrence of «new journalism» and the information addressed exclusively to women has been noted in the end of the XIX century. Gradually press «feminization» was replaced «equalization» that has caused serious discussions on a wave of success of feminist movement. Thereof the tendency of dedication of researches to women in journalism was in the early eighties of the XX century observed, however basically in socially — economic aspect; after there was variety of the works devoted to studying of gender relations in journalism, and also to transformations in public consciousness concerning a role of women and information representation. The given fact was an incitement to start the discourse analysis, in particular media, as display means in it of new realities of our society. The given researches of a media discourse are connected not only with the language use, but also with communicator of speeches, society and culture. Thus, the discourse-analysis covers such academic disciplines which focus attention to various aspects of human activity: anthropology, journalism, rhetoric, the literature and cultural science, sociology, psychology, geography, jurisprudence and formation. Therefore non-linguists address in the works to linguistics by means of discourse-analysis studying, and work of philologists gets interdisciplinary value.the given work views of modern researchers as Т. Van Dake, J. Austin, J. Searle, M. Fuko, E. Goffmana, S.I. Vinogradova, B.P. Parshin, V.Z. Demjankova, J.S. Stepanova on the given subject «discourse» are presented and also various approaches for an analysis discourse are offered.its introduction to modern science the term ‘discourse’ has taken various, sometimes very broad, meanings. In order to specify which of the numerous senses is analyzed in the following work it has to be defined. Originally the word ‘discourse’ comes from Latin ‘discursus’ which denoted ‘conversation, speech’. Thus understood, however, discourse refers to too wide an area of human life, therefore only discourse from the vantage point of linguistics, and especially applied linguistics, is explained here.is no agreement among linguists as to the use of the term discourse in that some use it in reference to texts, while others claim it denotes speech which is for instance illustrated by the following definition: «Discourse: a continuous stretch of (especially spoken) language larger than a sentence, often constituting a coherent unit such as a sermon, argument, joke, or narrative» [1, 105]. On the other hand Dakowska, being aware of differences between kinds of discourses indicates the unity of communicative intentions as a vital element of each of them. Consequently she suggests using terms ‘text’ and ‘discourse’ almost interchangeably betokening the former refers to the linguistic product, while the latter implies the entire dynamics of the processes [2, 81]. According to Cook novels, as well as short conversations or groans might be equally rightfully named discourses.concept of «discourse» is very helpful in understanding why men must resist negative stereotypes of their gender imposed by those with a negative mind-set. Discourse is a term that is often used synonymously with «ideology». However, it is much more than this, and is a central concept in trying to make sense of the contested area of understanding gender..S. Stepanov believes that the discourse is «language in language», but presented in the form of a special social reality [3, 11]. The discourse exists, mainly, in texts, but there is a special grammar, a special lexicon, special rules of the use and syntax, special semantics — finally — the special world… The phenomenon of a discourse, its possibilities are the proof of the thesis «language is the house of spirit» and, to a certain extent, of the thesis — «language is the life house».his turn V.Z. Demjankov defines a discourse as the text in its formation before a mind of the interpreter which consists of sentences or its fragments, and the contents of discourse often but not always concentrates around some «basic» concept, named «the topic discourse» or «discursive topic» [4, 32-43].the given definitions such concepts, as a discourse and the text are intertwined. But what is the difference of a discourse from the text? The text is a set of sentences, and the discourse is the base creating the text contextually-connected. According to V.Z. Demjankov, it is considered that discourse is the existence of the mental world which nuclear structures are «idealized cognitive models», «frames» or concepts behind text frameworks. The set of given structures will make semantic system, semantics of the mental world.discourse also differs from the act of communication representing natural activity of people in a society — the most widespread form of use of language which covers linguistic activity. At the same time, even if the act of communication concerns the most widespread functions of language use, it all the same is the text of the certain kind constructed by rules of social use. Thus, the term «discourse», according to M. Stabbs, in connection with the discourse-analysis and the analysis of the act of communications is not the same. The former contains the latter; therefore the discourse-analysis should not be interpreted as the special grammatical-focused direction of the analysis of the act of communication [5, 4].discourse in metapragmatical conditions is presented not only as a perceived context: conversation, interview, consultations, interrogation etc., but it also covers extralinguistic conditions which operate the given situations of language use. Thus, there are questions: how people use language in the given social context? What freedom is given to them in the use of language and what interferes with it depending on a context?the act of communications and the world of the user there is something more, that enters into philosophy of the act of communication: the reason that human language activity underlies on the basis of laws of more subject domain — a discourse understood as the general context of human language in use. The metapragmatist, thus, is beyond philosophy of act of communication: it reflects discursive context and checks, how much it is active as a result of use of acts of language dialogue, the latters are considered in the conditions of a context as they are pragmatic acts on the essence. Thus, according to G. May, active manufacture of pragmatic acts naturally assumes the existence of a certain society with its implicit and explicit values, norms, rules and laws and the established conditions of life: economic, social, political and cultural. These conditions concern one metaphorical expression — «society factory» — and become visible (basically by means of language and other kinds of human activity) and are covered by one concept «discourse».French philosopher M. Fuko characterizes a discourse as the practice of creation of sense from signs. This practice falls outside the limits of simple understanding of statements: sense creation should be perceived as active creation of value, as practice which regularly forms subjects about which she speaks. Discursive space is the huge chaos, ready to accept language and word influence. And on the contrary, discursive space equips with metapragmatically necessary material for value creation. Out of the given space where objects are created, and nothing occurs: no human practice is possible, as polyliterally nothing has sense [6, 191].conditions which M. Fuko places into human practice of manufacture of value make a discourse different from a simple set of sentences and statements. As the given conditions are realized be communicators, they cannot be identified with the restrictions established by grammar, the content and even rules of colloquial practice; falling outside the limits all of them, they represent a sociality of the person. Discourse practice is a practice of a society: creative space in which M. Fuko’s objects appear, and created and transformed by a society. Among the objects generated by a society in discursive practice, human social relations are the main; the discourse, thus, according to M. Fuko, represents the plural phenomenon, through which social manufacture of value takes place, and their set creates a society as that.discourse creates and recreates public relations: it creates also the individual user, and gives ability to the individual to exist and co-exist with other individuals. Objects can enter into systems according to their characteristics (for example: phonemes in phonology), or according to their distributive properties (as morphemes in morphology and syntax); these objects then form structures in which classified subjects change the status and character of the fact of its structuring dictated by integrity. Thus, the word is more, than sequence of phonemes, the sentence — more than the sequence of morphemes and words connected together, and the text is more than sequence of sentences. On the basis of the above-stated it is possible to draw a conclusion, that the discourse combines social structures which it creates as system which generate it, and It proves to be true definition of the discourse given by S.I. Vinogradov — «the complete communicative event consisting in interaction of participants of communications by means of verbal texts and-or other sign complexes in a certain situation and defined socio-cultural conditions of dialogue» [7, 139]. Accordingly the formula to the given definition will be following:
Discourse = text + interactivity + a situational context + a cultural context.
However M. Fuko’s formula to which scientists often addressed, includes two components:
Discourse = «already-told» + «never-told» [8, 27], other authors, for example, D. Biber, on the contrary allocate set of situational variations making of the following parametres in a discourse [9, 156]:
) communicative characteristics of participants;
2) relations between the addressee and the receiver;
3) a situation;
) the channel;
) relations of participants to the text;
) installations, intentions and the purposes;
) a theme.is a number of definitions of the term «discourse», however in this paper we take the concept of a discourse as «the speech shipped into life», according to N.D. Arutjunova’s classical definition [10, 17], and we consider it in close interaction with social factors.
From here the conclusion arises, important for understanding of the discourse-analysis: it is impossible to approach to language as to abstract system as the discourse is both a knowledge source, and result. It becomes obvious, that subject of a discourse-analysis is very wide — «language in its use» for J. Brown and J. Iul, «statement» for D. Shiffrin, «verbal communications» for J. Renkem. In the widest sense, we agree with M.L. Makarova’s point of view: the discourse analysis is an integrated sphere of studying of language dialogue from the point of view of its form and function [11, 17]. Many analysts are at a loss to answer, what makes a discourse-analysis a discipline. Dividing B. Jonestones’s sight, it is possible to assert, that «a discourse-analysis is a method of research which is used by many scientists for the various academic and not academic purposes, various disciplines, for the purpose of a finding of the answer to various questions: How the arrangement of information structures in sentences can signal about value? How speakers specify semantic intentions and how listeners interpret this received information and what cognitive abilities underlie on the basic of human use of symbols?» [12, 5].
In the area of pragmatists the discourse-analysis considers «body» of communications and helps to describe main principles of interpretation and ways of use of statements for achievement of the communicative purposes. Moreover, it is important to define the social and gender stratification. In what degree the gender aspect influences creation of this or that type of a discourse? Cording to P.B. Parshin [13, 89], specificity of the social agent is essential to define the type of the discourse; therefore the given aspect should be included in a discourse-analysis. Depending on the agent the discourse can be: feministic, pre-election, Soviet, racist, presidential etc. Researches within the frame of a discourse and a gender are so various, that there is no uniform approach which would be named as «the feministic discourse-analysis». Actually, not all approaches are considered feministic in the given direction, but all of them are considered in four different, but interconnected research traditions: Anthropological (cultural aspect), sociological (social interaction), critical (text), and the most modern anthropological (historical trajectories of a discourse). Thus, we come to the fact that the discourse is a social, cultural and political phenomenon and the discourse theory is not simply reflection of a society, culture and the power, but it is also perennial source of the additional information.the present research the critical discourse-analysis which representatives are N. Ferklou, Т. van Dake, R. Vodak is important. The given approach considers language as means for manufacture and power and ideology reproduction. The given statement is also proved in sociology, thus, giving the basis to consider, that the gender discourse is considered as the form of «symbolical violence» [14, 208] which is understood as a kind of the symbolical struggle which purpose is the symbolical power and the symbolical capital. Hence, it is possible to consider any discourse political. It is possible to agree with it partially as pragmalinguistic principle of the analysis takes place in researches of discourse of such scientists as J. Searle, J. Austin, and P. Grace. From the given point of view, the discourse is a world of thought designed by the author in which it immerses the interpreter. The skilled author, especially the politician, anticipates such speech suggestion by preparatory processing of another’s consciousness so that the new relation to a subject harmonized with the settled representations — realized or not realized. Indistinct semantics of language promotes flexible introduction in another’s consciousness: the new sight is modified (it is an original mimicry) under the influence of system of the settled opinions of the interpreter, and at the same time it changes this system» [15, 3-18].the aforesaid it follows, that aspects of public relations are expressed and created in a discourse by the power, or by the cooperation. According to D. Tannen, the power deals there where dissymmetric relations in human relations take place, and cooperation, on the contrary, — symmetric [16, 77]. Men, protecting power territory, apply various receptions to support of manufacture of imperious relations, e.g. strategy on fall. The woman in the given context is considered as basic «consumer», and the man — «manufacturer» of a discourse. The given context is mainly presented by such version of a discourse, as institutional. The formula of the given discourse is presented E.I. Shejgal [7, 16]
Discourse =sublanguage + the text + a context
The following understanding of a discourse is offered to the researchers:
Communications system = real + the potential.
«In potential measurement the discourse represents the semiotics space including verbal and nonverbal signs, and also representations about typical models of speech behavior and a set of speech actions and genres necessary for the given type of communications», — writes E.I. Shejgal [7, 16].social group carries out additional function of differentiation to a gender sign: accordingly, it dictates presence of a label for performance of the set social role; thus, specificity of style of gender communicative behavior of women and men is traced. The mentality of society in turn sets variability of representations on such concepts, as «feminine» and «masculine», i.e. gender model which is necessary for performance by the individual of social, gender roles and norms in a society during the certain historical period. There is a certain related communication with ritual, but change of a paradigm of values involves change in behavior of society. Hence, on the basis of all resulted above formulas it is possible to present following components of a discourse accounting social and gender aspect:
) the agent;
) a sublanguage (social aspect);
) a sublanguage (gender aspect);
) the situational text;
) a cultural context.of results of researches of the given phenomenon shows, that the foreshortening of research of a discourse depends on those problems which face to scientists. Leaning against J.S. Stepanova, V.Z. Demjankova and E.I. Shejgal’s concepts, we come to discourse definition as «language in language», but presented in the form of a special social reality, i.e. the discourse is considered in close interaction with social factors. It exists, mainly, in texts, which have a special grammar, a special lexicon, special rules of the use and syntax, special semantics — finally — the special world. Conceptually its creation is influenced by factors of situational-social, gender and cultural plan during interaction of participants in semiotics space. The discourse is created in a certain situation of dialogue where participants possess social roles, installations, intentions.
Linguistic Approaches to Gender in Literary Texts
In regard to the question of gender and discourse, we need to identify the discourses around the nature of males in our society, and look for the power effects, or implications, of these discourses — for it is these discourses that will determine the social and political responses to mens and boys health needs.discourses about what constitutes «woman» and «man» have appeared over time. In European cultures, the Victorian eras dominant discourse on women saw them as weak creatures, subject to control by their emotions and reproductive biology. The power effects of this discourse led to social practices, and even legislation, concerning the appropriate occupations and roles of women, and it limited their opportunities to participate in the public sphere of social life. Men, on the other hand, were in this period seen as unable to provide the nurturing required by children, rather as the disciplinarians and providers of their familys material needs. Thus, the power effects of this gender discourse on men resulted in their being largely excluded from the sphere of private life.regarding men and women still differ today. This was exemplified in a presentation by an earlier speaker, who noted that young women smoke to control body weight so as to attain a socially defined «attractive» body shape. It was claimed that young men smoke because they see it as a «manly» thing to do. If we deconstruct this statement, we can see that there is an underlying discourse — women are perceived as being subject to outside influences (to their detriment) — that they lack «agency», the power to initiate actions in their own lives — they are largely victims of external forces. Men, however, are seen as having power to choose, as being agents for their own actions, so that men smoke to create a persona. The result (power effects) of this type of discourse, which is common in many areas of mens and womens health, is that we attempt to change environments for women (by reducing the emphasis on thin bodies), but tell men to change themselves (by stopping smoking). We locate womens health challenges outside of themselves, but the challenges to mens health we see as arising within the men themselves (or in the abstracted men of «masculinities»).main way of social communications and manipulation is the language showing various situations of social communications which participants in the conditions of direct dialogue can be at least two real partners and in the conditions of text communications — two potential partners. The language signs making semiotics space of the oral and written text represent social life under different corners, including its political component. The political space of society is designed by various political movements, parties, associations, groups which structure includes the politicians differing not only on political views, on level of linguo-cultural competence, on popularity among members of the given society, but also under such biological factor (feminine, masculine) which deserve special research. The modern gender theory does not try to challenge distinction between women and men, believing, that the fact of distinctions is not so important, as their socio-cultural estimation and interpretation, and also construction of imperious system on the basis of these distinctions.second wave of feminist movement in the West in the end of 60s — the beginnings-70s of the XX century has given a push to development of researches which are called now as gender. The steady designation of the whole area of modern interdisciplinary researches by the term «gender» follows tradition of the English-speaking research literature: «gender» means «a social sex» unlike a «biological» sex». Gender is one of the central and fundamental concepts of a modern society which requires understanding. T. Lauretis has made digression to dictionaries of the various countries on values of a category «gender» and in the American dictionary of a heritage of English language [17, 18]: the word «gender» is defined, first of all, as the classification term, and also as the morphological characteristic («grammatical gender»). Other meaning of the word gender in this dictionary is «sex classification; a sex». It is interesting, that English language (where is not presented neither masculines, nor a feminine gender) has accepted gender as a category referring to a sex. In the same American dictionary it is possible to find out one more gender definition is representation. The word has no adequate translation in Russian, and its writing and a pronunciation is copied from English language. In I.R. Galperin’s big English-Russian dictionary it is possible to see, that gender has two meanings. The first is a grammatical gender and the second is a sex, as a playful designation [18, 668]. Gender definition (gender) as socio-cultural floor sex is not full for an explanation, and it is proved by a definition given in the glossary of the Moscow Institute of gender researches: «The gender is difficult socio-cultural construct: distinctions in roles, behavior, mental and emotional characteristics between man’s and female, (designed) by a society. The gender is designed through certain system of socialization, a division of labor and the cultural norms accepted in a society, a role and stereotypes» . The term «gender» is understood as the representation of relations showing an attachment принадлежность to a class, group, a category (that corresponds to one of meanings of the word «род» — «gender» in Russian). Thus, the gender attributes or assigns to any object or the individual a position in a class, and, hence, and a position concerning others, already made classes. After A.V. Kirilina, we consider concept «a gender» and «sex» as synonyms and we understand under these concepts «socio-cultural and conventional phenomena and discursive factors of variable intensity, instead of biological phenomena» [20, 12].the western general scientific approaches to this category, O.A. Voronina defines seven approaches. So, the gender can be considered as a socially-demographic category; a social design; subjectivity; ideological construct; a network; technology and a cultural metaphor [21, 13 — 95].gender researches exists two conceptual approaches: the theory of socio-cultural determinism (accidentalism) and the biodeterminism theory (existentialism). Supporters of the socio-biological concept of gender point out distinctions in women and mens behavior, in particular communicative; using psycho physiological distinctions connect them with distinction in speech processes and designate gender distinctions by sexual distinctions. Biodeterminists challenge opinion, that distinctions between representatives of two gender groups exist both in physiological, and in the social plan. In frameworks of sociodetermenistic directions, according to E.A. Kartusina, it is especially underlined, that «representations about «masculinity» and «feminist», along with communicative behavior, are designed, instead of simply reflected in language as language is represented in the way of formation of consciousness» [22, 26]. А.В. Kirilina scientifically proved two approaches as two periods of development of the gender researches, one of which has come in the stead of another: «…The gender approach is based on a number of methodological principles, major of which — sex relativisation, that is refusal of a biodeterminism and gender interpretation as socially and cultural designed phenomenon. The recognition of cultural conditionality of a sex, its institutional and ritualized character conducts to the recognition of its conventionality, unequally shown as in various cultural and language communities, so at various stages of their development. All it allows to approach to «masculinity» and «feminity» phenomena not as to an invariable natural reality, and as to dynamic, changeable products of development of the human society, giving in to a social manipulation and modeling and subject to the strongest influence of cultural tradition» [23, 134-135]. However, in our opinion, socio-deterministic and biodetermenistic approaches oppose today, the relation between concepts «gender» and «sex» is differentiated in various formulations of the concept «gender». O.V. Ryabov explains the relation of concepts «sex» and «gender» as whole and a part: «the sex consists of a biological sex and socio-cultural sex in which, in turn, should be distinguished a social and cultural-symbolical component. Thus «the sex» and «a gender» correspond among themselves not as a sort and a kind, but as whole and part» [24, 52]. In other treatment wider concept is the «gender» uniting a biological and social sex: «Gender» is some kind of an interdisciplinary intrigue in which basis set of sciences about the person are weaved, about its not only biological, but also socially and cultural caused specificity, an intrigue as sets of circumstances, events and actions in which centre there is a person, the personality» [25, 9], in our opinion, Special attention demands gender definition as important cognitive category used at interaction of people as in linguistics the concept «gender» corresponds with designed in language and fixed in consciousness of its carriers in the images, norms, traditions and style of behaviors, and also with set of attributes which are attributed to men and women in defined socio-cultural community.)interrelation of language and gender was focus of many researches which history breaks up to two periods. For the first period prominent features were: 1) irregular character of research; 2) «man’s» language, and a deviation from norm — «female» was considered as norm. The second stage is marked by the large-scale researches caused by growth of interest to pragmatic aspect of linguistics, development of sociolinguistics and essential changes in traditional distribution of man’s and female roles in a society.background of gender researches in linguistics leaves the roots in antiquity and is connected with occurrence of the symbolical-semantic concept of a gender category (genus), considering it in a close connection with a direct reality: presence of people of a different sex. The given symbolical-semantic hypothesis was supported by such scientists as M. Gerder, J. Grimm, V. Humboldt, etc., that has predetermined its long domination in the linguistic description. The symbolical-semantic hypothesis has not found acknowledgement because of opening of languages in which the gender category is absent. Nevertheless, in frameworks of criticism of the given hypothesis and gradual replacement by its morphological and syntactic explanation of gender category invariable there was a recognition of that the gender category itself is capable to affect human perception of corresponding words and concepts.theme of mutual relation of language and gender was peripheral in linguistics, and regular researches in the given area were not spent. Only in the beginning of last century the given problematic — the language and floor theme — began to be put in the forefront for two reasons: first, because of heightened interest to it of linguists with a world name (E. Sepir, F. Mautner, O. Espersen) and, secondly, in the linguistic description the social plan considering language in connection with a society and the person being in it began to be put forward. It occurrence of new directions in linguistics — sociolinguistics, the pragmatist, psycholinguistics, the discourse and communications theory speaks.the end of the 60th — beginning of 70th of the XX century gender researches have received a powerful impulse thanks to the New women’s movement in the USA and Germany therefore in linguistics there was the new direction named feministic linguistics (FL — the term has been entered by L. Push) or feministic criticism of language. R. Lakoff’s work «Language and a place of the woman», proved anthropocentricity of language and defectiveness of the image of the woman in the picture of the world reproduced in language [26, 84].interrelation of language and gender was focus of many researches which history breaks up to two periods. For the first period prominent features were: 1) irregular character of research; 2) «man’s» language, and a deviation from norm — «female» was considered as norm. The second stage is marked by the large-scale researches caused by growth of interest to pragmatic aspect of linguistics, development of sociolinguistics and essential changes in traditional distribution of man’s and female roles in a society.background of gender researches in linguistics leaves the roots in antiquity and is connected with occurrence of the symbolic-semantic concept of a category of a sort (genus), considering it in a close connection with a direct reality: presence of people of a different floor. The given symbolic-semantic hypothesis was supported by such scientists as M. Gerder, J. Grimm, V. Humboldt, etc., that has predetermined its long domination in the linguistic description. The Cimvoliko-semantic hypothesis has not found acknowledgement because of opening of languages in which the sort category is absent. Nevertheless, in frameworks of criticism of the given hypothesis and gradual replacement by its morphological and syntactic explanation of a category of a sort invariable there was a recognition of that the sort category itself is capable to affect human perception of corresponding words and concepts.theme of mutual relation of language and gender was peripheral in linguistics, and regular researches in the given area were not made. Only in the beginning of last century the given problematic — the language and sex theme — began to be put in the forefront for two reasons: first, because of heightened interest to it of world-known linguists (E. Sepir, F. Mautner, O. Espersen) and, secondly, the social plan considering language in connection with a society and the person in it began to be put forward in the linguistic description. It explains the occurrence of new directions in linguistics — sociolinguistics, pragmatics, psycholinguistics, the discourse and communications theory.
The feministic linguistics has two currents: the first concerns research of language for the purpose of revealing asymmetries in its system, directed against women. These asymmetries have received the name of language sexism. It is a question of the patriarchal stereotypes fixed in language and imposing to its carriers a certain picture of the world in which the supporting role is taken away to women and negative qualities are attributed basically. Researches of language and sex asymmetries are based on Sepir-Uorfs hypothesis: language not only a society product, but also means of formation of thinking and mentality. It allows representatives of feministic linguistics to assert that all languages functioning in patriarchal and post patriarchal cultures are man’s languages and are under construction on the basis of a man’s picture of the world. With the appearance of S. Tremel-Pletts’s works «Linguistik and Frauensprache» and also L. Pushs work «Das Deutsche als Mannersprache» the feministic linguistics has received great distribution in the USA and Germany. As M. Dmitrieva considers, supporters of language reform pursued following aims: 1) to make women more appreciable in language; 2) to remove gender relevance; 3) to make gender presence at language less obvious [27, 258].
The second direction investigates features of communications in the unisex and mixed groups (D. Cameron, J. Coates). These researches concern communicatively-pragmatic function of language. Studying of speech behavior within the limits of the given direction has allowed revealing and to describe man’s and female strategy of speech behavior in details. It is possible to carry its strongly pronounced polemic character, attraction to the linguistic description of results of all spectrum of sciences about the person (psychology, sociology, ethnography, anthropology, history), and also a number of successful attempts to affect the language policy to specificity of feministic criticism of language [28, 234].90s gender researches became extended enough. Existence of special man’s and female languages (gender-linguistics) with constant signs which in due time has described Robin Lakoff. Linguists have come to necessity to study speech of women and men in a concrete context. According to A.V. Kirilina, the period of formation of primary development of a linguistic component domestic genderlogy and gender researches is at the end stage. [23, 14]. The given opinion is considered correct only partly as their feature, according to D. Tannen, consists that they did not proceed from feministic ideology as it has occurred in the USA and the Western Europe, and had no sexist orientation in researches. And the parity of a grammatical gender and an extra linguistic category «sex» was studied within the limits of other disciplines — morphology, grammar, lexicology — long before formation of the feministic concept of language and formation of the term «gender» in the West [29, 358].O.L. Kamenskaya, considering features of works of gender researches in linguistics, it is offered to differentiate them on two groups. So, the first direction — the gender linguistics — investigates language and speech behavior with application of gender methods, and object of the second direction — linguistic genderology — is studying of a category of a gender with application of linguistic toolkit [30, 13-19].linguistic researches of a gender interdependent and complementary, nevertheless, at the detailed analysis it is possible to allocate six directions of development linguistic gender logy in modern linguistics:
) Socio-linguistic gender researches;
) Feministic linguistics;
) Actually gender researches studying language behavior of both sexes;
) Masculinity research (the youngest direction which has arisen in the end of 20 century);
) Psycholinguistic researches (within the limits of this direction works are spent to areas of neorolinguistics, studying speeches ontogenesis, here belongs both biodetermenistic direction investigating cognitive features and distinctions between men and women and their display in speech);
) cross-cultural, linguo-cultural researches, including a hypothesis of gender subcultures., in brief it is possible to distribute them in three directions: socio — and psycholinguistic, linguo-cultural, communicative-discursive [31, 78-94].a whole at studying of a problem of mutual relation of language and a gender and presence of certain features in man’s and female verbal behavior at present it is possible to allocate three basic approaches:
1) purely gender approach is reduced in treatment of exclusively social nature of language of women and men and aimed at revealing of those language distinctions which it is possible to explain features of redistribution of the power in a society, thus language is defined as certain functional derivative of the basic language, used when partners in speech are at different steps of social hierarchy. A theoretical basis of such approach is M. Fuko’s concepts and the sociological concept of genders have made by E. Goffman.
2) the second — socio-psycho-linguistic approach — reduces the second «female» and «man’s» language to features of language behavior of the woman and the man, for it statistics make a skeleton for construction of linguistic theories;
) the third approach does an emphasis on cognitive aspect of these distinctions. For it appears the main thing not only definition of rate of distinctions and operating by its indicators, but also an establishment of that difficultly gives in to an explanation [31, 82]., interdisciplinary character as confirms A.V. Kirillina, allocates two directions of researches: 1) a gender — as not linguistic object; 2) a gender — as the object of the linguistic description, is thus allocated metagender and gender level. The gender enters into sphere of researches as a cultural phenomenon, its reflection in language and designing in communicative interaction of individuals. All it allows to involve in research a wide range of linguistic questions — semantics, to the pragmatics, liguoculturology, cognitive linguistics, the discourse analysis etc. [23, 12].representation of the majority of linguists on gender, now at studying of a problem of mutual relation of language and a gender and presence of certain features in female and man’s verbal, allocate following directions of gender researches:
Revealing of certain distinctions of language levels: phonetics, morphology, semantics and syntax, and also distinctions in the field of verbal stereotypes in perception of women and men;
— Revealing of semantic distinctions which speak features of redistribution of social functions in a society — the approach exclusively from the gender positions, connected with the social nature of language of women and men;
— Construction of psycholinguistic theories in which «female» and «man’s» languages are reduced to features of language behavior of women and men;
Cognitive explanation of the revealed indicators. In this case important it appears not only definition of rate of divergences, but also an establishment of communication with various aspects of a picture of the world.each country studying of communication of language and a sex has the features, in linguistics the great value takes place developments of this or that concept as history of concepts, and systems of their oppositions to other concepts depend on this or that cultural tradition.of gender researches in modern linguistics of the post-Soviet territory is characterized by a number of factors [27, 234-242]:
Features of language in connection with a sex of its carriers in the Soviet linguistics are considered within the limits of traditional linguistic paradigms: morphology, syntax, etc. the sex within the limits of a separate direction as it occurred in the West, was not considered;
Formed today gender direction is characterized by undeveloped methodology and some terminological ambiguity. Mainly, as to interpretation of concept «gender»;
In view of small quantity of works of own scientists it is necessary to lean against works of foreign scientists.is necessary to notice, that it is possible to find conclusions in works of the American and German linguists in all directions of linguistic gender researches; however it is required to consider the specificity necessary in connection with ethno cultural distinctions., gender researches have no one expressed dominant. Modern researchers-linguists consider, that in researches on gender linguistics recently there was a turn to a discourse, and studying of interaction of language and a gender, in certain degree, became synonymous to discourse and gender studying. Told at all does not mean decrease in the importance for gender linguistics of such types of the analysis as grammatical, phonologic, lexical etc. At the same time interdisciplinary research of the phenomena discursive order has taken the central place in researches of interaction of language and a gender [32, 36].Kazakhstan linguistics throughout the long period of time the sex factor was considered in the linguistic description along with other pragmatic categories of the description. The analysis of imperious relations and a feministic discourse in linguistics were absent for the reasons both political, and social character. The analysis of available works allows defining a number of lines on which intensive research work is conducted. First of all it psycho-and socio-linguistic researches such as B.H. Hasanov, M.Z. Arenova, and also studying of names of persons female and male, categories of a sort and the problems connected with it reference by R.S. Amrenova, T.M. Abdrahmanova., in the general plan gender research in linguistics concerns two groups of problems:
Language and reflection in it of a sex. The purpose of such approach consists in the description and an explanation of how presence of people of a different floor is demonstrated in language (are investigated first of all nominative system, a lexicon, syntax, a sort category, etc.), what estimations are attributed to men and women and in what semantic areas they are most considerably expressed;
— Speech and, as a whole, communicative behavior of men and women where typical strategy and tactics are allocated gender specific choice of units of a lexicon, ways of achievement of success in communications, preferences in a choice of lexicon, syntactic designs etc.
Undoubtedly, at studying of communicative behavior it is necessary to consider the gender factor as public institutes and the culture, influencing gender socialization, dictate certain stereotypes of behavior, but thus also it is necessary to consider the status, age, an accessory to social group.given review of history of formation of researches in gender study gives the basis to assert, that it is necessary to consider extra linguistic and introlinguistic factors of influence of a gender on discourse formation, to consider ethno cultural specificity that is very important for intercultural communications during a globalization epoch. So, we come to conclusion, that now researches in gender study consider a gender not only as social construct, and also as institutional, ritualized, socio-cultural phenomenon and its reflection in language, but also designing in communicative interaction of individuals that is reflected in prompt development of new branch in modern linguistics — linguistic gender study.
.2 Belles-letters style as one of the functional styles of literary standard of the English language
to J. Mistrнk stylistics can be defined as the study of choice and the types of use of linguistic, extra-linguistic and aesthetic mean, as well as particular techniques used in communication. Considering the generally accepted differentiation between linguistic and literary stylistics, J. Mistrнk suggests that we carefully distinguish between the language style, belles-lettres and literary style (ibid., p. 30):
The language style is a way of speech and/or a kind of utterance which is formed by means of conscious and intentional selection, systematic patterning and implementation of linguistic and extra-linguistic means with respect to the topic, situation, function, author’s intention and content of an utterance.
The Belles-Letters style (artistic, aesthetic, in Slovak umeleckэ љtэl) is one of the language styles which fulfils, in addition to its general informative function, a specific aesthetic function.
The Literary Style is the style of literary works implemented in all components of a literary work, i.e. on the level of language, ideas, plot, etc. All these components are subordinated to aesthetic norms. (Thus Literary style is an extra-linguistic category while the language and belles-letters styles are language categories.) We can recognize the style of a literary school, group or generation and also an individual style of an author (i.e. idiolect). This means that on the one hand we can name the so called individual styles and on the other the inter-individual (functional) styles.
The object of lingo-stylistics is the study of the nature, functions and structures of stylistic devices and expressive means on the оnе hand, and the study of the functional styles, on the other. А functional style of language is а system of interrelated language means which serves а definite aim in communication. А functional style is thus to be regarded as the product of а certain concrete task set by the sender of the message. Functional styles appear mainly in the literary standard of а language.
The literary standard of the English language, like that of any other developed language, is not as homogeneous as it mау seem. In fact the Standard English literary language in the course of its development has fallen into several subsystems each of which has acquired its own peculiarities which аге typical of the given functional style. The peculiar choice of language means is primarily predetermined bу the aim of the communication. Оnе set of language media stands in opposition to other sets of language media with other aims, and these other sets have other choices and arrangements of language means.
What we here call functional styles аге also called registers оr discourses.the English literary standard we distinguish the following major functional styles:
) The language of belles-Letters.
) The language of publicist literature.
) The language of newspapers.
) The language of official documents.functional style mау bе characterized bу а number of distinctive features. Each functional style is subdivided into а number of sub styles. These represent varieties of the abstract invariant. Each variety has basic features common to all the varieties of the given functional style and peculiar features typical of this variety alone.
The belles-lettres functional style has the following sub styles:
а) the language style of poetry;) the language style of emotive prose;
с) the language style of drama.
The publicist functional style comprises the following sub styles:
а) the language style of oratory;) the language style of essays;
с) the language style of feature articles in newspapers and journals.
The newspaper functional style falls into
а) the language style of brief news items and communiquйs;) the language style of newspaper headings;
с) the language style of notices and advertisements.
The scientific prose functional style also has three divisions:
а) the language style of humanitarian sciences;
Ь) the language style of «exact» sciences;
с) the language style of popular scientific prose.
The official document functional style can be divided into four varieties:
а) the language style of diplomatic documents;
) the language style of business documents;
с) the language style of legal documents;) the language style of military documents.classification presented here is by no means arbitrary. This classification is not proof against criticism. Other schemes may possibly be elaborated and highlighted by different approaches to the problem of functional styles. Thus, for example, some linguists consider that newspaper articles (including feature articles) should be classed under the functional style of newspaper language, not under the language of publicist literature. Others insist on including the language of everyday-life discourse into the system of functional styles.. Budagov singles out only two main functional styles: the language of science and that of emotive literature. [36, 79]analysing concrete texts, we discover that the boundaries between functional styles sometimes becоme less and less discernible. Thus, for instance, the signs of difference are sometimes almost imperceptible, between poetry and emotive prose; between newspaper functional style and publicist functional style; between а popular scientific article and а scientific treatise; between an essay and а scientific article.
The language style of poetry emotive prose drama
Of all the functional styles of language, the most difficult to define is the belles-lettres style. Franz Kafka defines this style as «organized violence done on ordinary speech».works create their own world. Each is a unique entity. Just as a painter uses paint to create a new image, a writer uses words to create a text. An important thing to recognize about literary works is just how carefully and consciously they are crafted. Words are the raw material of literature and literary writers stretch them to their limits. [37, 94]. Crystal said that the literary language is the art in making the unnatural appear natural. For example, a playwright or novelist may write a dialogue which is naturalistic — i. e. it employs colloquialism, dialect words and so on — but this dialogue is very different from spontaneous speech. It will contain no non-fluency features; it will probably be less repetitious and more dramatic than ordinary speech. [38, 183]forms of literature make no attempt to appear natural — in fact they deliberately surprise the readersґ expectations. They might use familiar words in unfamiliar ways as e. e. cummings does, or they might coin new words as Gerald Hopkins does. Perhaps we expect poets to use deviant language, but prose writers like James Joyce do it too. The belles-lettres style is a generic term for three sub styles in which the main principles and the most general properties of the style are materialized.three sub styles are:
- the language of poetry
- emotive prose
- the language of the drama
Each of these sub styles has certain common features. First of all the common function comes which may be called «aesthetical-cognitive». This is a double function which aims at the cognitive process and, at the same time, calls for a feeling of pleasure. This pleasure is caused not only by admiration of the selected language means and their peculiar arrangement but also by the fact that the reader is led to form his own conclusions. So the purpose of the belles-lettres style is to suggest a possible interpretation of the phenomena of life by forcing the reader to see the view point of the writer. Nothing gives more pleasure and satisfaction than realizing that one has the ability to penetrate into the hidden tissue of events, phenomena and human activity and to perceive the relation between various seemingly unconnected facts brought together by the creative mind of the writer.all this it follows, that the belles-lettres style must select a system of language means which will secure the effect sought. The belles-lettres style rests on certain indispensable linguistic features which are:
Øgenuine, not trite, imagery, achieved by purely linguistic device
Øthe use of words in contextual and very often in more that one dictionary meaning
Øa vocabulary which will reflect to a greater or lesser degree the authorґs personal evaluation of things or phenomena
Øa peculiar individual selection of vocabulary and syntax, a kind of lexical and syntactical idiosyncrasy
Øintroduction of the typical features of colloquial language.belles-lettres style is individual in essence. Individuality in selecting language means and stylistic devices is one of its most distinctive properties.
So, the first sub style we shall consider is verse. Its first differentiating property is its orderly form, which is based mainly on the rhythmic and phonetic arrangement of the utterances. The rhythmic aspect calls for syntactical and semantic peculiarities which also fall into a more or less strict orderly arrangement.syntax and semantics comply with the restrictions imposed by the rhythmic pattern, and the result is brevity of expression, epigram-like utterances, and fresh unexpected imagery. Syntactically this brevity is shown in elliptical and fragmentary sentences, in detached constructions, in inversion, asyndeton and other syntactical peculiarities.second is the sub style of emotive prose has the same common features as have been pointed out for the belles-lettres style in general, but all these features are correlated differently in emotive prose. The imagery is no as rich as it is in poetry, the percentage of words with contextual meaning is not as high as in poetry, and the idiosyncrasy of the author is not so clearly discernible.form meter and rhyme, what most of all distinguishes emotive prose form the poetic style is the combination of the literary variant of the language, both in words and syntax, with the colloquial variant. It would perhaps be more exact to define this as a combination of the spoken and written varieties of the language, inasmuch as there are always two forms of communication present — monologue (the writers speech) and dialogue (the speech of the characters).
It follows then that the colloquial language in the belles-lettres style is not a pure and simple reproduction of what might be the natural speech of living people. It has undergone changes introduced by the writer. The colloquial speech has been made «literature-like.» This means that only the most striking elements of what might have been a conversation in life are made use of, and even these gave undergone some kind of transformation. Emotive prose allows the use of elements from other styles as well. Thus we find elements of the newspaper style in Sinclair Lewisґs «It Canґt Happen Here», the official style in the business letters exchanged between two characters in Galsworthyґs novel «The Man of Property», the style of scientific prose in Croninґs «Citadel» where medical language is used.all these styles under the influence of emotive prose undergo a kind of transformation. Passages written in other styles may be viewed only as interpolation and not as constituents of the style. Present day emotive prose is to a large extent characterized by the breaking-up of traditional syntactical designs of the preceding periods. Not only detached construction, but also fragmentation of syntactical models, peculiar, unexpected ways of combining sentences, especially the gap-sentence link and other modern syntactical patterns, are freely introduced into present-day emotive prose. [39, 387]third is the language of the drama. The stylization of colloquial language is one of the features of plays which at different stages in the history of English drama has manifested itself in different ways revealing, on the one hand, the general trends of the literary language and, on the other, the personal idiosyncrasies of the writer. Thus the language of plays is a stylized type of the spoken variety of language. The analysis of the language texture of plays has shown that the most characteristic feature here is to use the term of the theory of information, redundancy of information caused by the necessity to amplify the utterance. This is done for the sake of the audience.language of plays is entirely dialogue. The authorґs speech is almost entirely excluded except for the playwrightґs remark and stage directions. The language of the characters is in no way the exact reproduction of the norms of colloquial language, although the playwright seeks to reproduce actual conversation as far as the norms of the written language will allow. This variety of belles-lettres style has used the norms of the literary language of the given period. So 16th century drama is much different from 20th century drama. [40, 200]
So, resuming the theory on belles-lettres, let us put the question right here:
What is belles-lettres?
Well the answer is definitely to be:
Literature written for its own sake, not purely informative or factual. «Works of the imagination.» If the work is not meant chiefly to inform, but rather to please the aesthetic sense, its probably belles-lettres. Its synonym is literary works.forms does it take? Chiefly three: fiction (novels and short stories), poetry, and drama. Occasionally prose essays of a very speculative or general nature can be considered belles-lettres.also refer tales to the three mentioned forms of belles-letters and the reasons are that tales are:
·short stories — within each tale there is, though fairy or mystic or magic, a story with all its characteristics (we are not to specify story characteristics in our paper as it is not the essence of our paper);
·any tale can contain piece of poetry (there are plenty of tales we know with verses, poems);
·a tale can be dramatic by content too.
·At least nowadays all the tales are finally recorded, digitized and available in any form a reader wishes.arguments are the main pushers for us to proceed our research with the analyses of the tales in the forthcoming part of the paper.
2. Gender discourse in the tales of the three languages
.1 A short excursus into tales
english language gender discourse
The question of gender in literary texts has been approached by linguists in two different ways. The first involves a comparison of the fiction created by male and female authors and is typified by the search for «the female sentence» or a specifically female style of writing. The second involves a study of the uses to which the linguistic gender system of different languages has been put in literary works. In the former, gender is seen as a cultural property of the author, in the latter, a morphological property of the text. A third perspective on language and gender in literary texts is provided by translators and translation theorists. Translation theorists typically view a text as expressive of a particular time and place as well as being expressed in a particular language.are going to consider gender discourse in the context of fairy tales of the three languages. The reason we have chosen English, Kazakh and Russian fairy tales is that during the course of the studies in the University we have been closely dealing with these languages. One more reason is that we think that through the prism of comparison gender discourse in the three languages will reveal and illustrate the uniqueness of language opportunities to penetrate into the depth of human thought. Moreover, fairy tales are the product of not only one persons writing activity, but the accumulated experience of history, culture and traditions of a nation, of people, of men and women — so, this is how the choice of the material for the analyses and the research topic get interwoven.have taken for the analyses the following works:
vin English — English Folktales (edited by D. Keding and A. Douglas): «The Pottle of Brains», «The Old Woman and her Pig», «The Farmer and the Cheese», «Jack Turnip», «Lazy Jack» ;
vin Russian — Михаил Евграфович Салтыков-Щедрин «Недреманное око», «Дикий помещик», «Баран непомнящий», «Повесть о том, как один мужик двух генералов прокормил» ;
vin Kazakh — «Красавица Кункей», «Три сына бедняка», «Чудесный сад» .
Fairy tales uncover various aspects of reality through fictitious characters and places. Initially, fairy tales were an integral part of folk-lore, being constantly expanded and changed in different cultures until the spread of written language.fact is that in an oral form fairy tales were created by adults for adults, demonstrating values and traditions of people, though later acquiring a more loving audience in children. Although tales differed much due to social distinctions. Fairy tales created for children of the upper-class reflected specific moral norms and manners, while fairy tales of common people revealed a criticism of this higher society and uncovered various social vices.male writers contributed to the development of the fairy tale in the eighteenth century; this is especially true in regard to Charles Perrault whose Mother Goose Tales acquired unusual popularity among children and adults of various nations. Such Perrault’s tales as The Sleeping Beauty, Little Red Riding Hood, Cinderella and Puss in Boots are still popular nowadays. In the eighteenth century Histories, or Tales of Times Past by Charles Perrault were published in English. Cullinan and Galda consider that this collection of tales transformed adult fairy tales into children’s fairy tales that were admired by both boys and girls, because early children’s literature mainly dealt with biblical myths and oral stories. [44, 172]now adults who have read so many readable materials, we can presume that the best fairy tales are supposedly universal. It does not matter when or why they were written. [45, 1] The main characteristic feature of these literary fairy tales is that they conform to a linear structure, that is, the end of the tale is the start. For instance, in the fairy tale Rapunzel written by the Brothers Grimm the two principal characters Rapunzel and the Prince manage to overcome many difficulties and start a new life. As the Grimms put it, the Prince led her [Rapunzel] to his kingdom where he was joyfully received, and they lived for a long time afterwards, happy and contented. [45, 54]1756 a French female writer Madame Le Prince de Beaumont produced a simple literary variant of Beauty and the Beast, a fairy tale that was intended for youngsters. Madame Beaumont also issued Magasin de Enfants, a collection of literary fairy tales for children’s education, which she primarily used for girls to diversify her lessons with them. This book gave rise to the idea that fairy tales were especially useful for children. However, some people in the middle of the eighteenth century made constant attempts to oppose the spread of the fairy tale in children’s literature. In particular, the protestant Samuel Goodrich under the assumed name Peter Parley pointed at the negative impact of fairy tales on children, presenting various scientific data to prove his viewpoint. To some extent, the attempts of Goodrich and his followers restricted fairy tales, but with the emergence of Romanticism children’s fairy tales became more and more popular.the nineteenth century children’s stories began to bring much income, and the tales written by the French salon writers appeared under the pseudonym Mother Goose. In addition, German writers Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm managed to publish their well-known collection of fairy tales Childhood and Household Tales that contains such great tales as Hansel and Gretel, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs and Rumpelstiltskin. It was in that period when fairy tales began to be chiefly utilized for children’s education and acquired a crucial place among other genres of children’s literature. As Jack Zipes puts it, the fairy tales for children were sanitized and expurgated versions of the fairy tales for adults, or they were new moralistic tales that were aimed at the domestication of the imagination [46, 14]
Some considerations on some characters in the tales referred below
Therefore, moral values and notions of fairy tales were strongly controlled in nineteenth-century literature; the authors of the fairy tale adhered to strict censorship and had to reflect the ideals that were considered appropriate for that society. Some of Andersen’s fairy tales, such as The Princess on the Pea and The Wild Swans, are borrowed from folk-lore, although other tales are first-hand pieces, including The Little Mermaid, The Snow Queen, The Red Shoes and The Ugly Duckling.the end of the nineteenth century Walter Crane produced his illustrations to Cinderella, Beauty and the Beast, Puss in Boots and Sleeping Beauty, and Alexander Afanasyev gathered many Russian tales. In fact, the development of Russian fairy tales differs much from the development of the fairy tale in Western cultures. While the fairy tale in France, Germany, Great Britain and other European countries was closely connected with myths, fairy tales in Russia were perceived as the real past of Russian people. As a result, the fairy tale in Russian literature is usually divided into three principal kinds: tales of animals and birds, supernatural fairy tales and daily tales.Russian fairy tales differ from European tales, they also reflect the impact of France and Germany on the plots and ways of expression. However, Russian fairy tale writers made everything to decrease this influence, thinking that the revival of [native] fairy tales would promote the triumph of the Russian language over the French language, which had been adopted by aristocracy. This is especially obvious in fairy tales written by Alexander Pushkin who adheres to French literary traditions and the structure adopted by Charles Perrault. Contrary to Western fairy tales, Russian fairy tales became a part of children’s literature much later due to the existing notion that fairy tales resulted in nightmares, that is why, for a long time they were appropriate only to adults. [47, 334]the twentieth century such Russian fairy tale writers as Aleksey Tolstoy, Olga Larionovna, the Brothers Strugatsky, Valentina Zhuravleva, Ivan Efremov and Evgennii Zamiatin rejected Western traditions and advanced Russian fairy tales. In their turn, Western authors Orson Scott Card and China Mieville borrowed some elements of Russian tales using them in their own fairy tales. The twentieth century is also characterized by the formation of different versions of early fairy tales, including film adaptations and operas, especially Walt Disney’s film version Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs and the ballet Cinderella by Sergei Prokofiev. Besides, these popular fairy tales have a great impact on contemporary writers of the fairy tale, such as Emma Donoghue, Delia Sherman, Robert Coover, Angela Carter, Margaret Atwood and Tanith Lee. [48, 8-18]to other literary forms, the development of the fairy tale was one of the most important inventions of children’s literature. The fairy tale, with its rather simple plot, provides valuable lessons to children and inspires their interest in other literary genres. It not only develops children’s imagination, but also gives them an opportunity to take part in the described events and understand some aspects of reality; the true history of mankind is contained in fairy stories, they make it possible to guess, if not to discover, its meaning. Although the fairy tale Snow White has been exposed to different changes since its initial creation and every variant of this story reflects certain cultural traditions of various countries, the crucial role of the tale is explained by its impact on the formation of children’s identities.example, Snow White reveals German culture and the essence of their times, but what is more important is that this fairy tale deals with the inner world of a personality rather than with specific events of reality. Despite the fact that the beginning of the Grimms’ Snow White is written in a realistic manner, depicting a birth of a beautiful girl and her mother’s death afterwards, in whole the tale is unrealistic. For instance, Snow White’s step mother has an unusual mirror that can speak to her; the only question that the Queen asks is Mirror, mirror upon the wall, who is the fairest of all? — and the only answer that satisfies her is — «Thou, O! Queen, art the fairest of all». [49, 280]Queen’s soul is filthy, she is obsessed with her appearance and needs a constant confirmation of her beauty, while Snow White is beautiful inside. In this regard, the Brothers Grimm draw a parallel between inner and outer beauty, implicitly revealing the connection of their fairy tale with ancient myths. If a child follows the behavior of the Queen, he/she will finally lose, but if a child acts, like Snow White, he/she will benefit. Children’s identities are shaped by their environment; however, through most of man’s history, a child’s intellectual life apart from immediate experiences within the family, depended on fairy tales.to Snow White, such fairy tales as The Three Little Pigs, Rapunzel, The Goose Girl and Cinderella reveal certain patterns of behavior and morality that boys or girls should follow, if they want to succeed. Many fairy tales reflect gradual changes of their characters, as they acquire experience in the process of narration, teaching children to behave in a similar way. For instance, the Scarecrow from the fairy tale The Wizard of Oz written by Frank Baum becomes wiser in his search of his identity and avoids mistakes that he made at the beginning of the story.fairy tale The Goose Girl by Brothers Grimm brings up the issue of female independence, revealing the transformation of a princess into a goose girl and her realization of her true self. The girl’s change helps her to understand many crucial things of life.
Such fairy tales are especially important for children who have some inner conflicts and problems, as these tales reveal certain ways to overcome their difficulties. The fairy tale is created to reveal both good and bad sides of life, simultaneously stressing the importance of struggle for a person. In fact, the development of the fairy tale in literature reflects the attempts of adults to guide children towards appropriate ways of behavior. For instance, such fairy tales as Little Red Riding Hood warns children, especially little girls, of the dangers and reveals the consequences of their disobedience.tales differ in their patterns of appropriate behavior. In particular, the researcher claims that such Perrault’s fairy tales as Little Red Riding Hood, Cinderella, Sleeping Beauty and Bluebeard embody the features that are appropriate for young women, including patience, obedience, politeness, inner power and kindness. The principal female characters of the mentioned fairy tales possess these features and they finally benefit from their good behavior., other fairy tales of Perrault, such as Ricky of the Tuft, Hop o’ My Thumb and Puss in Boots, reveal the desirable male features, including intelligence, good manners, education, devotion and strength. But these particular features are gradually implemented into the fairy tale by various writers who change the earlier versions of these tales. This is obvious on the example of Little Red Riding Hood that in the interpretations of Perrault and the Brothers Grimm differ much from the oral folk tale. In the earlier version a little girl encounters with a werewolf (оборотень) and tells him where she goes; the werewolf kills her grandmother and then makes a girl eat her meat.tale of the Brothers Grimm resembles Perrault’s tale, but they introduce a woodcutter who saves the girl and the grandmother, giving the girl an opportunity to act in a different way in future. In this regard, an earlier version of the tale demonstrates people’s fear of being killed by wild animals, while Perrault’s version symbolizes the relations between an innocent young girl and a dangerous man who is presented in the image of the wolf.
The Brothers Grimm’s interpretation pays much attention to cultural traditions of their nation, revealing women’s dependence from men; neither the grandmother, nor the girl is able to save themselves in the face of danger, while a man, a woodcutter, helps these female characters. The same regards the Brothers Grimm’s tale Snow White, where the girl is first saved by the huntsman and then by dwarfs, serving as their mother and performing various household duties. Through these tales the Brothers Grimm manage to reflect their ideals on social roles of men and women and to convey experience of the previous generations in regard to various aspects of life.the other hand, the Grimms considerably change various folk elements of their tales, introducing their own morality and ways of expression. For instance, developing their fairy tale Rapunzel, the Brothers Grimm follow some folk traditions of earlier versions of this tale, making major stress on magical elements rather than on folk elements.particular, the fairy tale Beauty and the Beast deals with the magic that is closely connected with psychological maturation of the principal female character. At the beginning the tale presents an awful beast, but as the fairy tale progresses, the Beast appears to reveal many human features, such as loneliness, kindness and care. When a Beauty meets the Beast, she perceives him as ‘terrifying’, because she is afraid of males; however, as she is changed from a girl into a woman, the Beast also changes into a good-looking Prince.is clear that such an interpretation is made by an adult, but not by a child who does not realize the complex subtext of this fairy tale, but Beauty and the Beast is still one of the most popular fairy tales of children’s literature. The fact is that fairy tales have a gradual impact on a child; although he/she may not understand all meanings of the fairy tale at once, he/she starts to uncover its subtext and symbolism in the process of maturation. Perhaps, it is this variety of profound meanings that makes the fairy tale the most crucial genre of children’s literature.
Comparison of tales in different cultures
Although the development of the fairy tale differs in various countries, reflecting the peculiarities of certain cultures, many tales reveal common structures and motifs. For instance, such fairy tales as The Three Little Pigs, Goldilocks and the Three Bear and Sleeping Beauty demonstrate three protagonists or three Fates, while in the tale Snow White the Queen makes three attempts to kill her stepdaughter. However, in the Brother Grimm’s fairy tale The Juniper Tree that greatly resembles the tale Snow White a wicked stepmother manages to kill her stepson from the first time, but the boy is revived by the end of the tale, similar to Snow White.common feature of these tales is the existence of supernatural helpers, such as a magical godmother in Cinderella or dwarfs in Snow White. Cinderella is one of the most important fairy tales that exists in various cultures; despite the fact that the principal character has different names, such as Cendrillion (Italy), Yeh-hsien (China), Catskin (England) and Aschenputtle (Germany), the plot and morality of this fairy tale are similar. In general, there are more than three hundred variants of Cinderella, including the versions written by Charles Perrault and the Brothers Grimm. In all these different versions two characters, Cinderella and the stepmother are opposed to each other, revealing the struggle between good and evil.same opposition is shown in the tale Snow White, where the stepmother is presented as a cruel woman, while Snow White is a beautiful and kind girl, similar to Cinderella. Thus, the image of a stepmother in fairy tales is negative, demonstrating social reality in regard to families: the poor girl suffered it all patiently, and didn’t dare complain to her father, who would have scolded her, because he was completely under the [stepmother’s] sway. In Perrault’s and the Brothers Grimm’s versions Cinderella is portrayed as a real beauty, because in the eighteenth-nineteenth centuries outer beauty was associated with inner beauty., in some other versions of Cinderella the principal female character is presented as an ugly girl who is further changed into an attractive young woman, while her stepsisters who are initially beautiful are transformed into freaks, with the exception of Perrault’s tale, where Cinderella forgives her stepsisters and finds appropriate matches for them. In the Brothers Grimm’s tale the stepsisters of Cinderella are punished with blindness for the rest of their lives.Perrault’s version of the tale much stress is put on fancy dresses and the image of the godmother, while in the Brothers Grimm’s version Aschenputtel there is no godmother; instead, there is a tree near the grave of Cinderella’s mother that helps the girl. Similarly, in Rashin-Coatie, the Scottish variant of Cinderella, there is a red calf that gives aid to the protagonist. Thus, Western culture implements the image of the fairy godmother, while other cultures mainly deal with certain magical things that possess great power.Perrault’s variant of the tale Cinderella is given the glass slippers to match her beautiful dress and when the Prince finds a lost slipper, he announces to the sounds of trumpets that he would marry the girl whose foot fit the slipper. But in the Chinese version of the tale and the Brothers Grimm’s variant the principal female character gets the gold shoes. In general, shoes and boots are crucial elements of the fairy tale; for instance, the cat in Puss in Boots wears boots that provide him with higher position and the Queen of Snow White is given the red hot shoes that kill her.the development of the fairy tale in children’s literature, we can suggests that fairy tales were created from the myths and folk stories and acquired a literary form approximately in the seventeenth century. Although at the beginning fairy tales were written for adults, gradually they began to occupy one of the most important places in children’s literature. It was in France, where fairy tales were first exposed to these changes, followed by such countries as Germany, Great Britain and America. In Russia, where fairy tales were closely connected with country’s history, they were used in children’s literature several centuries later, implicitly revealing the difference between Western and Russian cultural traditions. Although Russian fairy tales reveal certain influence of Western culture, they create their own reality, introducing native elements, characters, settings and plots.to children’s emotionality, fairy tales allow children to solve their inner conflicts in the ways depicted in the narration. Among the most famous fairy tale writers are Charles Perrault, Hans Christian Andersen and the Brothers Grimm who combine ancient mythical traditions with their own cultural traditions in their tales. However, while the Brothers Grimm and Perrault worked with earlier folk tales, Anderson wrote novel fairy tales, conforming to a conventional literary form. In this regard, each fairy tale has a variety of versions that, despite their diversities, reflect common plots and motifs. Some of them are Cinderella, Snow White, Sleeping Beauty, The Three Little Pigs, Puss in Boots, Little Red Riding Hood and The Princess on the Pea. Overall, all these fairy tales were developed as the principal educational tool that adhered to serious censorship and implemented the desirable patterns of children’s behavior. In addition, fairy tales written by Andersen and the Brothers Grimm reflect some principles of Christian morality that were absent in folk tales and myths.
2.2 Comparative analyses of the tales in Kazakh, English and Russian languages
So, as we have already stated above, the following is the material for carrying out the comparative analyses: English Folktales: «The Pottle of Brains», «The Old Woman and her Pig», «The Farmer and the Cheeses», «Jack Turnip», «Lazy Jack»; М.Е. Салтыков-Щедрин «Недреманное око», «Дикий помещик», «Баран непомнящий», «Повесть о том, как один мужик двух генералов прокормил»; «Красавица Кункей», «Три сына бедняка», «Чудесный сад». (The full versions of the texts of the tales are available in Appendix 1, 2 and 3 accordingly to the languages appearance in the paragraph).
We find it reasonable first to open up the content of the tales, so as to give a wholesome picture of the texts of the tales to the people evaluating the work. For the convenience the description is given in tables, as we consider that structured presentation of information enables quicker and better comprehension of the materials; also it is easy to find and grasp the necessary pieces of information while carrying out comparison of the tales.
1. English Folktales «The Pottle of Brains» [41, 20-25]
CharactersStory developmentLocationsMoraleMainMinorJacks, Mother Jack, HenwifeYong woman, cow, chickens, neighbors, doctor, priestJack, a young man existing on his Mothers account, until she is fed up with his idling. She sends him to a strange creature for a piece of advice on further living — for a pottle of brains, to Henwife. The Henwife agrees to help on condition that Jack solves the riddles. He goes to Henwife three times failing to find out the right answers to her riddles, until he meets a young woman, whom he marries and who helps him with the right answers at his fourth visit to Henwife.A house, the top of the green hill, hut.Jack was told to get a «a pottle of brains», but he never knew what it meant. Looking for a pottle of some thing, he lost the most precious person. In the end he himself gets no brain but in the person of his wife — embodiment of brains, wisdom with him but not still his own.
Table 2. English Folktales «The Old Woman and her Pig» [41, 48-49]
CharactersStory developmentLocationsMoraleMainMinorAn Old Woman,Pig, dog, stick, water, ox, butcher, rope, rat, cat, cowOn a casual sixpence the old woman buys a pig, which did not want to go through the stile. For solving that, the old woman involved a dog, a stick, water, an ox, a butcher, a rope, a rat, a cat, a cow to help her in succession. They did help and she did get the pig home.An old cottage, marketTrying to solve a tiny problem, the old woman had evoked a big chain of actions and actors instead of doing it herself and at once.3. English Folktales «The Farmer and the Cheeses» [41, 18-19]
CharactersStory developmentLocationsMoraleMainMinorFarmerPeople in the marketA farmer, cheese maker, on the way to the market stumbles and drops his goods. Instead of picking them up, he gets angry with them and lets them roll to the market on their own. Of course, coming to the market he finds no cheeses.Market, Nottingham, river Trent, hill, inn,Cheeses are cheeses, they can roll down as they are rounded. But! They are no thinking creatures!4. English Folktales «Jack Turnip» [41, 26]
CharactersStory developmentLocationsMoraleMainMinorJack Turnip-Jack falls on the ice and thinks how ice might make him fall and then continues his thoughts about who or what is stronger. He concludes that he is stronger, when at that triumphant moment he falls again on the ice.Winter laneHis wisdom is a fools wisdom!5. English Folktales «Lazy Jack» [41, 27-34]
CharactersStory developmentLocationsMoraleMainMinorKing, queen, princess, Jack, Jacks mother,Servants, artists, messengersThe king and the Queen have a daughter, the Princess who never smiles or laughs. Thats considered to be an illness as no one could make her laugh. At the same time there is Jack who never ever does anything but sit the fireplace. When his mother gets fed up, she sends him to a farmer to work as Jack was a quite strong lad he worked hard and every day as worked out more and more the grateful farmer paid him more and more until the payment counted a donkey. Silly Jack carries it on his shoulder making the whole town laugh. When the Princes see that, she bursts into laughter. So she gets cured and Jack marries her and his Mother did not have to do anything but sit by the fireplace.Village, palace, farmThough a rolling stone gathers no moss, but sometimes and very often — Fools have fortune
Table 6. Russian Folktales «Awake Eye» — «Недреманное око» 
CharactersStory developmentLocationsMoraleMainMinorAttorney, folk, AgaphyiaPolicemenA boy was with one eye awake and the other eye asleep was born. Eventually he becomes an attorney who sees nothing as all bribe-takers and law-breakers keep on the side where his eye is asleep — so the other veiled things are seen to the eye thats awake. A sleeping eye serves him bad fortune as he had chosen a beautiful woman but married a woman like him — with different eyes, who had been also selling stolen goods. They live together and getting old he gets worse in seeing and hearing, on the way to senate, where he wanted to find a job, the policeman — the only one — tells him the truth about his physical deficiencies that made him go back home.Small settlementGod sends a cursed cow short horns — even attorneys wife and son had such like eyes like his, such people do need two sound ears or eyes or nose as they will all the same be blind and deaf to the things that they do need or that bring no profit but just troubles7. Russian Folktales «An Uncouth landowner» — «Дикий помещик» 
CharactersStory developmentLocationsMoraleMainMinorLandowner, men — serving the land-owner (muzhiki), district police officer (ispravnik), 4 generals, the bearA landowner having all the material wealth could not find rest for his soul. So he asks God to take all men (muzhiki) away; but God did not satisfy his pray, He decided to help the men instead as the landowner, having become very greedy, deprived them of everything as the landowner stays alone there was no one to take care of him and he gets more and more savage until he becomes as wild as an animal. His desire to prove everyone that he could live without the men, brought many problems to the life in the district in the whole; so his men were returned and the landowner was restored to the previous way of life again.Land-owners house, his garden, the woodsLet everyone look to himself, and no one will be lost (Dutch) — this is not about our hero, as he loses himself completely; Each man must suffer for his own sin (Chinese) — this best suited to him.
Table 8. Russian Folktales «An oblivious ram» — «Баран непомнящий» 
CharactersStory developmentLocationsMoraleMainMinorMerino ram, sheep, sheep-breeder,Land-ownerA merino ram has a weird dream, the meaning of which he did not understand. The dream was beautiful and bothered the ram to such extent, that it was carrying out his function no more — to create a merino-sheep flock. The landowner paid big money and did not send it to slaughter; so once in the night the merino seems to see something up in the skies, jerked and died of a mysterious morbus.Farm, sheep-foldTheres a black sheep in every family. (American) — the ram saw itself free in his dream, forgetting it was just a ram and no more. All other sheep in the flock did not understand his worries and just laughed at it. Ignorance is the cause of fear. (Roman) — the ram died in vain in ignorance, so for him ignorance was even death.9. Russian Folktales «A tale of one man who fed two generals» — «Повесть о том, как один мужик двух генералов прокормил» 
CharactersStory developmentLocationsMoraleMainMinorTwo generals, a man — muzhik.CooksThe author places two generals on an uninhabited island. The two were in their pyjamas and had nothing more but a journal. They wanted to eat and searched the island but found nothing but fruit high on the trees, birds flying alive, rabbits and other animals that needed to be cooked. They had no idea of how to treat all that to turn it to eatable food. Tired and hungry they could think of nothing but food and nearly ate each other. One of the generals remembered that they miss a man — muzhik, who ought to be somewhere over the island too. So they find one. This muzhik takes good care of them, feeding them with different meals. The generals lived happily since then but missed home; so they made him bring them back home. Getting home, they thanked the man by sending «a glass of vodka and a-five-copeck silver coin» (пятак) to have a feast.Uninhabited island, Petersburg, Podyacheskyi districtA hungry man is an angry man — but our generals best thing to do was to make a muzhik work for them; they have died if not that man; Gratitude is the hearts memory (French) — will they meet the same care for such gratitude?
Table 10. Kazakh folktales «Beauty Kunkey» — «Красавица Кункей» [43, 100-107]
CharactersStory developmentLocationsMoraleMainMinorA young man, vizier, Kunkey, rock carrying batyr, hear-all batyr, lake carrying batyr, fast running batyr,khan, mother, an old man, an old woman, an ant, Kunkeys fatherA young man brings a fallow-deer with golden horns to khan; the vizier, who envies much, tells khan to send him for a silver-golden stand and then for a golden tree — the young man manages all that: with the stand by his mother help and with the tree by an old mans help. The plotter-Vizier tells to send him after Beauty Kunkey, who lived right under the sun. on our heros way, he meets rock carrying batyr, hear-all batyr, lake carrying batyr, fast running batyr and an ant — the batyrs and ant, who help him to overcome the traps of Kunkeys father. Kunkey falls in love with the young man and turns his khan into a wolf and turns Vizier into a fox, making the wolf chase the fox. So, the young man and Kunkey stay together.Palace, steppe, caveCurses like chickens come home to roost — for the vizier, and Enough is as good as a feast — for the young man.
Table 11. Kazakh folktales «Three sons of the poor» — «Три сына бедняка» [43, 76-91]
CharactersStory developmentLocationsMoraleMainMinorAsan, Khasen, the fourth apprenticeAsans daughter, Khasens son, a wise man and his first three apprentices, birdsAsan and Khasen lived nearby and when misfortune happened to Khasen, Asan accepted him as a brother. Khasen finds a pot of gold in the field that had been given by Asan and he wants Asan to tale it, but Asan denies. After long discussions they decide to marry their children and give them the gold. But the newly-married couple also refuses to take it; finally they go to a wise man. The wise man first addresses to his apprentices and the first three answers were not approved. The youngest apprentice offered to spend the gold for buying seeds and create a garden for the poor. Everybody liked that idea and the youngest apprentice went to the market; on his way he met a caravan loaded with beautiful birds who were obviously suffering. The caravan leader told those were birds were for khans kitchen and the apprentice pays twice more to the caravan leader and sets the birds free. After a while he realizes what he did and falls into despair but when he opens his eyes he sees those birds planting the seeds and the trees immediately growing and covering with leaves and fruits. So there appears a magic garden; and when the rich want to enter try the fruits — they fall dead; and when the poor want to enter the garden and eat fruits — they were welcomed. So that the place for all the poor to feel happy.Farm, field, market, steppe.A good deed is never lost — golden words to finish the tale!
Now we will analyze gender discourse reflected in the tales in English.
1. «The Pottle of Brains»
In the following diagram we offer comparison and description of gender use in the tale.
these tables we see that female gender characters have more solid status in the family and, therefore, in the society. Though, we know that women, for Jacks period and place, were acclaimed as long as they the source of warm, ready hot food, a nice shoulder to lean on and a house keeper. Jacks mother is the example of how women started to demand equality between men and women — these are the veiled samples of how relations of between the sexes were changing from generation to generation.about Henwife and the young lady, we can state now, that these kind of women — witches or simply women who turned out to (eventually) know more than men were considered to be sorceress and were the subject of persecutions. We can state that the Henwife was a witch or something — she was strange and she knew things women should not know probably. By the next diagram we want to show the size genders activity, therefore, usefulness and sufficiency as a personality: Jacks figure is at front as women, all the same, could not do without men mostly.
. «The Old Woman and her Pig»
This tale is picture of what a woman becomes after the life full of labor and cares.
This tale might seem funny and weird if not sad and tear-provoking. We see a series of actions when the old woman is trying to solve such a tiny problem, which actually is vitally important to her. The actors of the process (a dog, a stick, water, an ox, a butcher, a rope, a rat, a cat, a cow) represent the levels of authorities where old people usually address to when having some problems that they cannot solve themselves. Those problems might seem unimportant to those authorities but in reality, these problems do mean much to the old people as to this old woman. Facing indifference and desire to earn something even from the old woman, she keeps going hoping to reach the goal and she does!
3. «The Farmer and the Cheeses» and «Jack Turnip»,
These are the illustrations of mens self-reliance and extremely high self-confidence. These men were absolutely sure they are right and the others (the cheeses and the ice).
The cheeses that fell out from the pack embody the dreams or desired plans of a man and they, dreams-cheeses, started to roll away from the cheese-maker. His stubbornness exceeds his ignorance and sometimes it is hard to distinguish when he is a reasonable person and when he is …not! The same is with Jack Turnip as he quite seriously questions the things a grown up person would never do. Ice, the sun, a cloud, the wind, a mountain, a tree and Jack himself were the objects to be compared for having more power than the previous one; moving from one object to another he was becoming more and more confident about his view on this «issue».more common feature is that they two remind of children — naпve and immediate that in the end it all causes smiles to say — wise fools!
4. «Lazy Jack»
This tale is a good example of an honest fool! Jack, in this tale, is also a lazy lad whose mother is as industrious as Jack is a lazy-bone. He is also driven by his mother to get a job. Jack is a very strong lad and seeing that work is no worse than idleness, he starts to work hard. His devotion and honest work touches the farmer and the farmer pays each time more and more. There is also a princess, a girl who never ever smiled.
There are some opposite parallels between the female characters; for example Jacks mother and the princess: they both never did something that is the mother never idled and princess never smiled and they both get centered around Jack — just as Jack started to work the change in the life of the both began.could also trace similarities about the farmer and Jack: they worked hard (when worked!), they asked no extra questions and knew how to be grateful. Men do understand each other without words very often.more thing is classical exception — when two opposites: in gender and in character as well as general worldview get attracted by each other. Some will say its a fate, but we consider it to be concurrence of circumstances: the way Jack was carrying the donkey over the bridge and that process was witnessed by the princess, also that scene only made her laugh — all is the way how things come out. In this situation it is a non-verbal correlation of the two sexes.
Now we will analyze gender discourse reflected in the tales in Russian.
5. «Awake Eye» — «Недреманное око»
The tales by Saltykov-Shedrin are the literary works containing historical trends, so it is very easy to follow the changes in the social roles of genders in different periods. For example, under the aegis of Empress Catherine the Great (XVIIIc), European culture was a dominant influence among the Russian aristocracy, particularly in the years prior to the destruction of the monarchy in the French Revolution. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Western ideas and the beginnings of modernization spread through the huge Russian empire. Political evolution, however, failed to keep pace. And this tale is a vivid example for that. The males were privileged to occupy state positions — governing positions, places in local authorities, different officials. The fact of having queens on the head of the empire was always discussed and accompanied by different legends, as for example, all queens had favorite men (фавориты), who used to take the initiatives in their hands, as women are such «fragile and indecisive creatures».
are decisive and problem solving when at work but quite at a loss when at home. The attorney could do nothing with his wife though knowing she was also a law-breaker — because at home he is no attorney, just a husband to a woman who rules at home.
6. «An Uncouth landowner» — «Дикий помещик»
This tale is pure description of a male. The landowner was not at once uncouth — wild, living non-washed, eat cooked food; he became that state of wildness on his own will, thinking that he is showing endurance of his inner world, trying to prove everyone he can live without «those stinky, improper muzhiki, who became quite widespread in the region». This is typical consideration of men upon the other people whom they consider to be not equals; women would not consider that in the same way, at least understanding that the help of muzhiki is indispensable.
7. «An oblivious ram» — «Баран непомнящий»
The ram is a male. The tale speaks of the cases when a person forgets about his destination. What we know is that men are vulnerable to different types of obsession. The «civilizing process» of cultural modernization and secularization in Russia was also somewhat different from early modern Western Europe. (Graph 8. — below)
as it was related to and associated with the development of capitalism, urbanization, and the emergence of the middle classes, the «civilizing process» in Russia was belated and labeled as «Westernization.»
8. «A tale of one man who fed two generals» — «Повесть о том, как один мужик двух генералов прокормил»
Because of the peculiar strength of Russian absolutism, new forms of socializing and etiquette were often introduced from above, by the Imperial court, not as mere examples for more or less voluntary imitation, but as arbitrary and compulsory prescriptions, to be carried out under close administrative supervision, and with the utmost contempt and disregard for individual preferences and tastes.is what we see in the tale. The two generals were grown, brought up and taken care of as it was prescribed by the higher authorities. As the result we see that the part of the brain, responsible for the knowledge of surviving, became atrophied — they know nothing of how to help to themselves. (Graph 9. — below)
is a sort of continuity between Peter the Greats masquerades and compulsory shaving of the boyars and the Communist partys crusade against long hair, beards, miniskirts, wide or narrow pants, and so on. Ideologically, these policies were quite opposed-in the first case, this was compulsory Westernization, and in the second-anti-Westernization, but the compulsory administrative methods and social-psychological consequences of both policies were similar. Since it was introduced mainly through external and repressive means, the civilizing process in Russia tended more to rigid conformity and uniformity than to pluralism and diversity.
Now we will analyze gender discourse reflected in the tales in Kazakh.
9. «Beauty Kunkey» — «Красавица Кункей»
All the literary works — oral and written are the representatives of Kazakh traditions, Kazakh wisdom, in general the Kazakh worldview. Speaking about traditions and wisdom we do not necessarily mean only positive sides, not at all. There are surely such things as vice, sin, fault and so on, but there are always better people to overcome that entire negative. (Graph 10 — below)
Kazakh wealthier layer of population considered being quite rightful to keep the lower layer down and the poor used to obey. In this tale we see that in full size but one more thing is so called «Асар» — «All people together» when the batyrs support the young man. The vizier, well aware of impunity and khans support, planned to smash the young man and using him get Kunkey. The young man, thinking that he was fulfilling the orders, did his best and he brought Kunkey to Khan. But womans wisdom serves no good to vizier and it is quite favorable towards the young man. Though the men have decided everything for her — the last word is left for her.
10. «Three sons of the poor» — «Три сына бедняка»
The tale has some traces of classical Russian tales about three brothers. But the beginning is the trace of fear before new and unfamiliar: when the father sees his sons greeting him — thats like a signal for him that that new and unfamiliar is already here and very close to him. No man — no problem and the father sends the sons away like getting rid of a problem; why did the sons obey so easily — because it is a tradition to obey to father.the Russian analogs, in the Kazakh version the elder brothers are no mean or jealous. The men living on the steppes tried to stick to each other rather than compete and demolish each other; sure enough the cases of vice and sin also took place on the steppes of Kazakhstan, but friendship and mutual help prevailed as many Kazakhs were united by «Асар» — «All people together»!tale demonstrates intersexual relations: respect of young males to older females and males, endless care to young males by older females; concupiscent of old men to young beauties — the dreadful sin of all that drives men to do bad things to reach their vile passions.title of the tale is promising and raises different ideas about the content of the tale: people expect to find some traits alike to familiar tales. But a reader finds and what we found is quite different — magic goes hand in hand with real virtues and common beliefs.
11. «Magic Garden» — «Чудесный сад»
The tale is a pleasant story to dwell upon. We see people, who really respect and love each other, take care and try to protect each other. Asan and Khasen represent the common people from the steppes, who used to work hard to earn the piece of bread and finding a pot of gold spoiled no spirit of the men. Instead, they decide to share it with their children, in their turn, the children decide to let the wise solve the destiny of the gold. When the gold is out of the hands of these people of holy simplicity, another kind of people try to manage its fate.
A good deed is never lost — for the boy, whose heart was as pure as a tear!are no innocent, no unideological tales, just as they are no «natural» myths. Every tale is a manufactured object, and it is the inherent bad faith of a tale to seem, or rather to pretend, to be a fact. Similarly, such tales seem to be especially potent narrative forms of rhetoric. Such tales «legitimate so effectively because it relates the precarious reality constructions of empirical societies with ultimate reality.»
Considerations on the tales of the three languages.
Tracing the tales, we can distinguish two stages in our gender research: biological determinism and gender research proper. There are facts which questioned the dependence of gender category on biological peculiarities of the sexes.specific feature — biological determinism — is the recognition of the fact that psychological, cultural, behavioral and intellectual differences between men and women as well as peculiarities of their speech behavior were determined by their biological sex. But such factors as sex correlation, age, education and culture were are not sufficient as we could notice in our analyses.our work we also researched peculiarities of communication in various social strata and can conclude that existing gender differences in language are determined by social and historical causes.s speech is characterized by a great number of deviations from standard language due to their masculine type of behavior. We think that Individual speech code developed under the influence of a number of factors, for instance social, cultural, and economic and many others.gender peculiarities of dialogue discourse, we paid attention, in the first place, to communicative behavior strategy. We noticed that the male type of speech behavior is «competitive», and it assumes competitiveness, autonomy, striving for possession as we demonstrated by the tales. The female strategy of communicative behavior assumes interpersonal interaction, sociability and expression of feelings («cooperative» type). «Male» communication is less interlocutor-oriented; it is aimed at expressing ones own principles as in «Uncouth landowner».
«Female» communication is directed towards the interlocutor, mutual understanding and dialogue. It is admitted in any culture that womans social status is less significant in comparison with the mans because mans activity in social sphere is viewed as more socially significant as opposed to womans activity which is less productive as in «Uncouth landowner», «Beauty Kunkey», «Lazy Jack».studies confirm the existence of differences in mens and womens speech behavior. Gender-sensitive models of speech behavior are not assigned by nature; they are «constructed» by society, determined by institutions of social control and cultural traditions.assumption of men and women being different or alike is incorrect. Each person regardless of his/her sex assignment is an individual with equal opportunities. Various character peculiarities of men and women are caused not by their biological assignment to this or that sex. And these peculiarities (physiology and spiritual state) are best reflected in the English words «sex» and «gender».see that characters speech is directly related to communication. Thus, considerable differences of mens and womens worldview influence communication. Communication cannot be viewed disjointed from language as it is through language and other sign systems that worldview and, accordingly, gender peculiarities are expressed.our research, we view a communicative strategy as a part of communicative behavior or communicative interaction, where a number of verbal and non-verbal means are used for achieving a specific communicative aim, communicants personalities and communication setting being taken into account; as in «Pottle of brains» and «Lazy Jack» — mother positioning herself in a martial pose to show how determined she is. So, communicative tactics fulfill the function of the means of communicative strategy realization and correlate with individual communicative intentions.can now single out two types of influence: verbal and communicative. The key factors determining the possibility and effectiveness of verbal influence are:
üLinguistic — the interpretive factor of variational reflection of reality appears in the lexical sphere. It is based on the mechanisms of verbal influence on consciousness.
üExtra-linguistic — the factor of social demand for information with all its semiotic, psychic, ethno-cultural, social, cognitive and other characteristics of a persons life.
üSemiotic — an idea about the meaningful variety of linguistic expressions in accordance with objectives, goals, match or mismatch of ideas about linguistic variants of denoting an object or phenomenon, communicants understanding and correction of choice.
üSocial — selection and batching of information, correlation of negative and positive details (for instance, praise of feasible elements of criticism, criticism of positive assessment), knowledge and consideration of stereotypes and tales of mass consciousness, authoritative statements.
üCognitive — a persons processing of information: inert perception, misinterpretation of evidence, perception of false casual connections leading to inadequate reflection of reality.
üPsychological — emotional verbal influence on the addressee: a) persuasion (logical arguments) — reliance on consciousness, intellect; b) suggestion (emotional arguments) — appeals to emotions and putting the addressee into the psychological state necessary for the addressers aims. Communicative influence assumes influence on the addressees knowledge (cognitive level), relations (affective level) and intentions (connotative level) in the direction necessary for the addresser.on the addressees consciousness assumes presence of the subject and object of influence and represents an action aimed at someone or something in order to achieve or infuse something.and analysis of communicative strategies and tactics mens and womens speech behavior has shown that it is rather difficult to speak about working out a single classification because peoples communicative behavior is determined by a great number of factors. We can distinguish «general» and «particular» strategies, classification of particular strategies being rather complicated due to the variety and instability of communicative situations described in the tales.the course of studying gender differences in tales texts, communicative behavior strategies were brought to the forefront. Social conditions being equal social and professional status, age, communicative role etc.), men and women have different strategies of speech behavior. Gender roles vary according to the communicative situation and the speakers intention. Gender is a «floating» parameter which influences a persons communicative behavior.strategy of male communicative behavior assumes competitiveness, autonomy, striving for possession of control (competitive type). The female strategy of communicative behavior assumes interpersonal interaction, sociability and expression of feelings (cooperative type).
«Male» communication is less interlocutor-oriented; it is aimed at expressing ones own principles. «Female» communication is directed towards the interlocutor, mutual understanding and dialogue.these, we would argue, create a web of meaning, a socially constructed worldview that historically has excluded or made secondary the experience of certain groups of people. In addition, mass mediated messages offer the most contemporary, powerful, technologically and rhetorically sophisticated strategies for shaping cultural reality. The beauty, diet, and advertising industries are the most obvious, best researched examples of contemporary, self-conscious myth-makers who control cultural concepts (and acceptable images) of gender (of what it takes aj (-=nd means to be male or female, masculine or feminine).us look at the comparative table of female gender discourse in the three languages represented in the tales.lets see what the united analysis of the male discourse of the tales mentioned above is.meet a very active male character who is so occupied with his own problems and feelings that he doesnt even notice the woman who lives at his side and is selflessly devoted to him, taking good care. This scheme is painfully well known, and the sexual roles are traditional; the man is the hero and the woman is his humble servant, be she is a mother or a lady. It is only the experience of an outbreak, which opens the eyes of the hero and allows him to see the virtues of a mother or a girl.have carried out studies in an experimental paradigm in order to quantify features of women’s and men’s speech. This research is not intended to provide a cross section of research. Rather, it presents a broad and in-depth sociolinguistic, linguistic, and ethnographically oriented discourse analysis.reader can also trace tendency to separate the gender and language field into two camps, roughly conceived as the «dominance» approach and the «cultural» approach. The «cultural» approach can be traced in the work also. But we want to warn that such vision-separation — is unfortunate because, like most bipolar representations, it belies the complexity of the issues and the subtlety of the research. We hope that the analyses and arguments contained in this volume will serve to obliterate this dichotomy.do not deny the existence of dominance relations in general or the dominance of women by men in particular. Likewise, recognizing that men dominate women in one culture does not preclude the existence of patterns of communication that tend to typify women and men; as we see from the tales patterns can be interchangeable.practical part is a better understanding of the complex relationship between the cultural patterning of linguistic behavior and that of gender relations. We tried to demonstrate that «cultural» approach to gender refers to the proposal that males and females can be thought of as belonging to two different cultural groups since they tend to socialize in primarily sex-separate peer interaction.aspect of cultural patterning that bears on gender and language is the recognition that gender is only one of many cultural influences affecting linguistic behavior. Analyzing the tales in the three languages we made an attempt toresearch provides an in-depth introduction to research on gender and language that has been carried out in the tradition that might be called ethnographically oriented discourse analysis or interactional sociolin
study of language and gender has increasingly become the study of discourse and gender.we could see during the research, while phonological, lexical, and other kinds of linguistic analysis continue to be influential, the interdisciplinary investigation of discourse-level phenomena, always a robust area of language and gender scholarship, has become the central approach of the field.also can conclude that there plenty of books, articles, and dissertations in numerous disciplines examine the intersection between discourse and gender from a variety of analytic perspectives. This proliferation of research presents problems for any attempt at a comprehensive overview, for although many of these studies are explicitly framed as drawing on the insights of discourse analysis, their approaches are so different that it is impossible to offer a unified treatment of discourse analysis as a tool for the study of language and gender.can also state that there is no well-defined approach to discourse that can be labeled «feminist discourse analysis».work focused on studying male and female communicative behavior in three languages — English, Russian and Kazakh — and research in realizing the rich potential of meanings developed in this form of belles-lettres as tales.
We managed to prove that tales bear the traces of belles-lettres: tales are also short stories as each tale has a fairy or mystic or magic but story with all its characteristics; any tale can contain piece of poetry (there are plenty of tales we know with verses, poems); a tale can be dramatic by content too; and moreover, we now face such situation when all the tales are recorded, digitized and available in any form a reader wishes. We can also state that the signs of mythological and belles-lettres experience are remained both in folklore and classical literature up to day. The mythology is not of systematic and full character in comparison with that of the ancient Greek or Rome or China. But it is possible to find out the traces of Russian and Kazakh mythology in correspondent folklore samples.
We have carried out analyses of the tales from the three languages stipulated in this research. The analysis was not only based on functional and pragmatic approach to language study but also centered on modern trends in cognitive linguistics, socio-cultural studies, cognitive, psychological and a number of other factors.the analysis and resuming the theoretical materials we can conclude that discourses regarding men and women still differ today. This was exemplified in every tales consideration textually and graphically. For example, women are perceived as being subject to outside influences (to their detriment) — that they lack «agency», the power to initiate actions in their own lives — they are largely victims of external forces. Men, however, are seen as having power to choose, as being agents for their own actions, so that men live to create a persona. The result (power effects) of this type of discourse, which is common in many areas of mens and womens image, is that we attempt to change environments for women.
english language gender discourse
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