Idioms and slangs in M. Twain’s work

Idioms and slangs in M. Twain’s work

Introduction

Slang is more or less common in nearly all ranks of society and in every walk of life at the present day. Slang words and expressions have crept into our everyday language, and so insidiously, that they have not been detected by the great majority of speakers, and so have become part and parcel of their vocabulary on an equal footing with the legitimate words of speech. They are called upon to do similar service as the ordinary words used in everyday conversation-to express thoughts and desires and convey meaning from one to another. In fact, in some cases, slang has become so useful that it has far outstripped classic speech and made for itself such a position in the vernacular that it would be very hard in some cases to get along without it. Slang words have usurped the place of regular words of language in very many instances and reign supreme in their own strength and influence.phenomenon of slang constitutes an open question for lexicography and sociolinguistics. Unfortunately, there is little agreement on the identification and definition of slang, so that the phenomenon is currently controversial. The concept of slang has been inaccurately defined by many lexicographers who tend to restrict it to informal or bad language, and the term slang has been improperly used by many sociolinguists who conflated it with such language varieties as cant, jargon, dialect, vernacular or accent. This is mainly due to the sheer pervasiveness of slang, since it is constantly moulding the standard language and also extending across a number of non-standard lects with its fresh and innovated vocabulary. [8]research paper is an attempt to explore slang and its usage in the fiction. The aim of my research contains in giving some contribution to slangs identification and interpretation, and to find out the function of slang words in the works by Mark Twain. [17]primary aims of my research are to highlight the pervasiveness of English slang across speech, and show its originality of forms and meanings. I shall characterize some forms of English and American present-day slang. Another important aim of my paper is to provide the context to proof the usage of slang in fiction for certain purposes, and to focus on its pragmatic purposes and effects. [4]slang in the fiction work provides the main difficulties in understanding the proper sense of the fiction work. Thus for reaching the main purpose of the research I have obtain the certain objectives:

·to study the main theoretical notes concerning the English stylistics;

·to describe the main features of the English slang; to investigate sociolinguistics relationship of standard and non-standard language varieties;

·to exemplify the usage of slang from the words by Mark Twain;topicality (importance of the paper) is determined by growing interest in the subject, in the learning of the English language, understanding the main processes during the translation and the great desire to study foreign literature reading the original texts. Moreover I have to mention that usage of the slang in the human speech is not enough studied that can be explained by the everyday changings of the different words and collocations.the completion of my objectives I have studied the main ideas of such scientists as: Arnold E, Galperin I., Homyakov and others. [1]achieve the main purpose of the research I used the next scientific methods:

·bibliographical method (for instance I have studied the books concerning the theory of stylistic);

·comparative method (I have compared different ways of forming slangs):

·explanation method (I have given the definitions of the different terms);

·analysis (I have analyzed the usage of the slang in the fiction works).all the moments mentioned above, I would put an accent on the fact that my research is actual because of:

the necessity to approve the methods and techniques of creating different types of slang;

the insufficient elaboration of the problem.qualification paper consists of: contents, introduction, two chapters, conclusion, and bibliography.name the chapters and the sections of the whole research.introduces the reader into the field of semantic: poses the aim, objectives of the work, research methods, source used, the structure of research and its practical relevance. It also points to the novelty of the given work.Chapter One «Slang and idioms in English language» consist of four paragraphs and deals with the main theoretical problems of investigation, give the definitions of the main types of the slang and idioms and analyses of translation problems.Two «Slang and idioms in Mark Twains work» is a practical part of my research that contains two paragraphs and deals with the usage of the slang in the works by Mark Twain giving the examples from the text. I have chosen one of the most popular work «The Adventures of Tom Sawyer». [18]summarizes all the practical experience gained in the process of investigation.gives an overview of scientific literature used in the research work.

1. Slang and idioms in English language

1.1 Definiton and origin ofthe slang

slang twain idiom

Of course slang itself has gone global; there are now local hybrids, often incorporating English lexis alongside the pervasive effects of dominant inner-circle varieties such as the high school argot propagated by Hollywood movies and TV soaps, and the black street codes of rap and hip-hop. Authenticity — not just a concept among analysts but an emblematic term for members of subcultures — is complicated by the development in the media and in literature of pseudo-slangs (a phenomenon that goes back at least as far as Raymond Chandler and P.G. Wodehouse). So-called virtual or electronic literacies developing for the Internet, email or text messaging have generated new slangs and an enormous proliferation of websites designed to celebrate or decode them. [4, p. 254]at young peoples’ small-culture codes, whether these be wide-ranging alternative lexicons or the narrower hobbyist (surfboarding, DJ-ing) or media-influenced (pop music and fashion) or technological (email, text-messaging, internet) vocabularies that shade into jargon, revalues young people as expert linguists and their own experiences as worthwhile and meaningful. In nearly all cultures there are examples of this expertise, sometimes also involving catchphrases, media quotes, one-liners, jokes and puns. Language crossing is also a feature of many slangs, bringing into play the question of linguistic imperialism (I recall lessons looking at Franglais, Chinglish and Spanglish, and, in Slovenia, debating the borrowing of `cool’.) [3, p. 456]

«Slang… an attempt of common humanity to escape from bald literalism, and express itself illimitably… the wholesome fermentation or eructation of those processes eternally active in language, by which froth and specks are thrown up, mostly to pass away, though occasionally to settle and permanently crystallise.»

Walt Whitman, 1885 [4, p. 38] The use of slang usually involves deviation from standard language, and tends to be very popular among adolescents. However, it is used to at least some degree in all sectors of society. Although slang does not necessarily involve neologisms (some slang expressions, such as quid, are very old), it often involves the creation of new linguistic forms or the creative adaptation of old ones. It can even involve the creation of a secret language understood only by those within a particular group (an antilanguage). As such, slang sometimes forms a kind of sociolect aimed at excluding certain people from the conversation. Slang words tend to function initially as a means of obfuion, so that the non-initiate cannot understand the conversation. The use of slang is a means of recognizing members of the same group, and to differentiate that group from society at large. In addition to this, slang can be used and created purely for humorous or expressive effect.terms are frequently particular to a certain subculture, such as musicians, and members of a minority. All the same, slang expressions can outside their original arena and become commonly understood; recent examples include «cool». While some such words eventually lose their status as slang, others continue to be considered as such by most speakers. The process tends to lead to their replacement by other, less well-recognised, expressions by their original users.is to be distinguished from jargon, the technical vocabulary of a particular profession, as the association of informality is not present. Moreover, jargon may not be intended to exclude non-group members from the conversation, but rather deals with technical peculiarities of a given field which require a specialized vocabulary. [8, p. 34]to Bethany K. Dumas and Jonathan Lighter, an expression should be considered «true slang» if it meets at least two of the following criteria:lowers, if temporarily, «the dignity of formal or serious speech or writing»; in other words, it is likely to be seen in such contexts as a «glaring misuse of register.» [1, p. 78] Its use implies that the user is familiar with whatever is referred to, or with a group of people that are familiar with it and use the term. «It is a term in ordinary discourse with people of a higher social status or greater responsibility.» It replaces «a well known conventional synonym». This is especially to avoid «the discomfort caused by the conventional item further elaboration.» [2, p. 564], slang can grow out of familiarity with the things described. Among Californian connoisseurs, Cabernet Sauvignon might be known as «Cab», Chardonnay as «Chard» and so on; this means that naming the different expends less superfluous effort. It also serves as a shared code among connoisseurs. [3, p. 99]is not just one slang, but very many varieties — or dialects — of it. Different social groups in different times have developed their own slang. The importance of encryption and identity, of having a secret code or language, varies between these instances. For slang to maintain its power as a means of encryption, it must constantly renew its process of expression, so that those not part of the group will remain unable to understand it. Many slang words are replaced, as speakers get bored of them, or they are co-opted by those outside the group. For this reason, the existence of slang dictionaries reduces the perceived usefulness of certain slang words to those who use them. [4, p. 189]slang terms pass into informal mainstream speech, and sometimes into mainstream formal speech, perhaps changing somewhat in meaning to become more acceptable.of slang Historical examples of slang are the «thieves’ cant» used by beggars and the underworld generally in previous centuries: a number of cant dictionaries were published, many based on that published by Thomas Harman. For example a ‘dingbat’ means a person. [5, p. 239]very often involves the creation of novel meanings for existing words. It is very common for such novel meanings to diverge significantly from the standard meaning. Thus, «cool» and «hot» can both mean «very good or impressive.» In fact, one common process is for a slang word to take on exactly the opposite meaning of the standard definition. This process has given rise to the positive meaning of the word «bad,» as in the Michael on song of that title, for example.- a type of language consisting of words and phrases that are regarded as very informal, are more common in speech than writing, and are typically restricted to a particular context or group of people.and expressions that are informal and not standard for English. Different social groups often use a special vocabulary. Sometimes this is fairly widespread and well understood. In the sentences that follow the slang expressions are in bold type.vocabulary of extreme informality, usually not limited to any region. It includes newly coined words, shortened forms, and standard words used playfully out of their usual context. Slang is drawn from the vocabularies of limited groups: cant, the words or expressions coined or adopted by an age, ethnic, occupational, or other group (e.g., college students, jazz musicians); jargon, the shoptalk or technical terminology specific to an occupation; and argot, the cant and jargon used as a secret language by thieves or other criminals. Occupying a middle ground between standard and informal words accepted by the general public and the special words or expressions of these subgroups, slang often serves as a testing ground for words in the latter category. Many prove either useful enough to become accepted as standard or informal words or too faddish for standard use. Blizzard and okay have become standard, while conbobberation («disturbance») and tomato («girl») have been discarded. Some words and expressions have a lasting place in slang; for instance, beat it («go away»), first used in the 16th century, has neither become standard English nor vanished. [5, p. 213]- informal, nonstandard words and phrases, generally shorter lived than the expressions of ordinary colloquial speech, and typically formed by creative, often witty juxtapositions of words or images. Slang can be contrasted with jargon (technical language of occupational or other groups) and with argot or cant (secret vocabulary of underworld groups), but the borderlines separating these categories from slang are greatly blurred, and some writers use the terms cant, argot, and jargon in a general way to include all the foregoing meanings.is nonstandard vocabulary composed of words or senses characterized primarily by connotations of extreme informality and usually by a currency not limited to a particular region. It is composed typically of coinages or arbitrarily changed words, clipped or shortened forms, extravagant, forced, or facetious figures of speech, or verbal novelties.consists of the words and expressions that have escaped from the cant, jargon and argot (and to a lesser extent from dialectal, nonstandard, and taboo speech) of specific subgroups of society so that they are known and used by an appreciable percentage of the general population, even though the words and expressions often retain some associations with the subgroups that originally used and popularized them. Thus, slang is a middle ground for words and expressions that have become too popular to be any longer considered as part of the more restricted categories, but that are not yet (and may never become) acceptable or popular enough to be considered informal or standard. (Compare the slang «hooker» and the standard «prostitute.») [3, p. 234]the terms of such a definition, «cant» comprises the restricted, non-technical words and expressions of any particular group, as an occupational, age, ethnic, hobby, or special-interest group. (Cool, uptight, do your thing were youth cant of the late 1960s before they became slang.) «Jargon» is defined as the restricted, technical, or shoptalk words and expressions of any particular group, as an occupational, trade, scientific, artistic, criminal, or other group. (Finals used by printers and by students, Fannie May by money men, preemie by obstetricians were jargon before they became slang.) «Argot» is merely the combined cant and jargon of thieves, criminals, or any other underworld group. (Hit used by armed robbers; scam by corporate confidence men.) [5, p. 239] Slang fills a necessary niche in all languages, occupying a middle ground between the standard and informal words accepted by the general public and the special words and expressions known only to comparatively small social subgroups. It can serve as a bridge or a barrier, either helping both old and new words that have been used as «insiders’» terms by a specific group of people to enter the language of the general public or, on the other hand, preventing them from doing so. Thus, for many words, slang is a testing ground that finally proves them to be generally useful, appealing, and acceptable enough to become standard or informal. For many other words, slang is a testing ground that shows them to be too restricted in use, not as appealing as standard synonyms, or unnecessary, frivolous, faddish, or unacceptable for standard or informal speech. For still a third group of words and expressions, slang becomes not a final testing ground that either accepts or rejects them for general use but becomes a vast limbo, a permanent holding ground, an area of speech that a word never leaves. [4, p. 84] Thus, during various times in history, American slang has provided cowboy, blizzard, okay, racketeer, phone, gas, and movie for standard or informal speech. It has tried and finally rejected conbobberation (disturbance), krib (room or apartment), lucifer (match), tomato (girl), and fab (fabulous) from standard or informal speech. It has held other words such as bones (dice), used since the 14th century, and beat it (go away), used since the 16th century, in a permanent grasp, neither passing them on to standard or informal speech nor rejecting them from popular, long-term use.words cannot be distinguished from other words by sound or meaning. Indeed, all slang words were once cant, jargon, argot, dialect, nonstandard, or taboo. For example, the American slang to neck (to kiss and caress) was originally student cant; flattop (an aircraft carrier) was originally navy jargon; and pineapple (a bomb or hand grenade) was originally criminal argot. Such words did not, of course, change their sound or meaning when they became slang. Many slang words, such as blizzard, mob, movie, phone, gas, and others, have become informal or standard and, of course, did not change in sound or meaning when they did so. In fact, most slang words are homonyms of standard words, spelled and pronounced just like their standard counterparts, as for example (American slang), cabbage (money), cool (relaxed), and pot (marijuana). Of course, the words cabbage, cool, and pot sound alike in their ordinary standard use and in their slang use. Each word sounds just as appealing or unappealing, dull or colourful in its standard as in its slang use. Also, the meanings of cabbage and money, cool and relaxed, pot and marijuana are the same, so it cannot be said that the connotations of slang words are any more colourful or racy than the meanings of standard words. [3, p. 210]languages, countries, and periods of history have slang. This is true because they all have had words with varying degrees of social acceptance and popularity.segments of society use some slang, including the most educated, cultivated speakers and writers. In fact, this is part of the definition of slang. For example, George Washington used redcoat (British soldier); Winston Churchill used booze (liquor); and Lyndon B. Johnson used cool it (calm down, shut up). [2]same linguistic processes are used to create and popularize slang as are used to create and popularize all other words. That is, all words are created and popularized in the same general ways; they are labeled slang only according to their current social acceptance, long after creation and popularization.is not the language of the underworld, nor does most of it necessarily come from the underworld. The main sources of slang change from period to period. Thus, in one period of American slang, frontiersmen, cowboys, hunters, and trappers may have been the main source; during some parts of the 1920s and ’30s the speech of baseball players and criminals may have been the main source; at ther times, the vocabulary of jazz musicians, soldiers, or college students may have been the main source. [4, p. 67]fully understand slang, one must remember that a word’s use, popularity, and acceptability can change. Words can change in social level, moving in any direction. Thus, some standard words of William Shakespeare’s day are found only in certain modern-day British dialects or in the dialect of the southern United States. Words that are taboo in one era (e.g., stomach, thigh) can become accepted, standard words in a later era. Language is dynamic, and at any given time hundreds, and perhaps thousands, of words and expressions are in the process of changing from one level to another, of becoming more acceptable or less acceptable, of becoming more popular or less popular.

1.2 Types of slang

Slang users tend to invent many more synonyms or near-synonyms than might be thought strictly necessary: for example, criminals may have a dozen different nicknames (gat, crone, iron, chrome) for their guns, or for informers (canary, grass, snout, stoolie); drinkers can choose from hundreds of competing descriptions of a state of intoxication (hammered, hamstered, langered, mullered)is convenient to group slang words according to their place in the vocabulary system and more precisely in the semantic system of the vocabulary. If they denote a new and necessary notion they may prove an enrichment of the vocabulary and be accepted into Standard English. If on the other hand they make just another addition to a cluster of synonyms and have nothing but novelty to back them, they die out very quickly, constituting the most changeable part of the vocabulary.type of classification suggests subdivision according to the sphere of usage, into general slang and special slang. General slang includes words that are not specific for any social or professional group, whereas special slang is peculiar for some such group: teenager slang, university slang, public school slang, Air Force slang, football slang, sea slang and so on.slang is language that speakers deliberately use to break with the standard language and to change the level of discourse in the direction of formality. It signals the speakers` intention to refuse conventions and their need to be fresh and startling in their expression, to ease social exchanges and induce friendliness, to reduce excessive seriousness and avoid clichés, in brief, to enrich the language. General slang words have a wide circulation as they are neither group — nor subject — restricted.ll hear Brits refer to their currency as quid, much in the same way American dollars are «bucks» and Canadian money is called «loonies.» [4, p. 167]someone asks to borrow a fag off you, give them a cigarette.Britain, a kiss is called a snog. If someone is knackered, that means they are exhausted. If someone is referred to as «a minger», that means that theyre unattractive. If someone tells you to «Bugger off!» well, it is suggested that you go away.of «Hi, how are you?» go with the quick and easy British «Alright?» No answer is expected.greatness. These include «barry,» «ace» and «kewl.» The latter kind of sounds like «cool» but youll know the difference in your heart.others. Calling someone an «arseface» or a «pilchard» will be even more the merrier if they have no clue you are insulting them to their face.slang tends to originate in subcultures within a society. Occupational groups (for example, loggers, police, medical professionals, and computer specialists) are prominent originators of both jargon and slang; other groups creating slang include the armed forces, teenagers, racial minorities, citizens-band radiobroadcasters, sports groups, drug addicts, criminals, and even religious denominations. Slang expressions often embody attitudes and values of group members. They may thus contribute to a sense of group identity and may convey to the listener information about the speaker’s background. [3, p. 314]some slang words and phrases are used throughout all of Britain (e.g. knackered, meaning «exhausted»), others are restricted to smaller regions.) Cockney rhyming slangRhyming Slang originated in the East End of London.slang is a form of slang in which a word is replaced by a rhyming word, typically the second word of a two-word phrase (so stairs becomes «apples and pears»). The second word is then often dropped entirely («I’m going up the apples»), meaning that the association of the original word to the rhyming phrase is not obvious to the uninitiated. Rhyming Slang phrases are derived from taking an expression which rhymes with a word and then using that expression instead of the word. For example the word «look» rhymes with «butcher’s hook». In many cases the rhyming word is omitted — so you won’t find too many Londoners having a «bucher’s hook», but you might find a few having a «butcher’s». [1, p. 195]rhyming word is not always omitted so Cockney expressions can vary in their construction, and it is simply a matter of convention which version is used.this list of example Cockney slang for parts of the body, you’ll notice that some expressions omit the rhyming word but others do not.Rhymes with Cockney Plates of meatPlates Hampstead HeathHampsteads Scotch eggs Scotchesproliferation of rhyming slang allowed many of its traditional expressions to pass into common usage. Some substitutions have become relatively widespread in Britain, for example «scarper», meaning to run away is derived from «Scapa Flow» meaning «to go». «To have a butcher’s», which means to have a look, from «butcher’s hook. For example «use your loaf» is an everyday phrase for the British, but not too many people realize it is Cockney Rhyming Slang («loaf of bread: head»). There are many more examples of this unwitting use of Cockney Rhyming Slang. [2, p. 144]has raised awareness of Cockney Rhyming Slang to far greater heights. Classic TV shows such as «Steptoe and Son», «Minder», «Porridge» and «Only Fools and Horses» have done much to spread the slang throughout Britain and to the rest of the world. Modern Cockney slang that is being developed today tends to only rhyme words with the names of celebrities or famous people. There are very few new Cockney slang expressions that do not follow this trend. The only one that has gained much ground recently that bucks this trend is «Wind and Kite» meaning «Web site».style of rhyming has spread through many English-speaking countries, where the original phrases are supplemented by rhymes created to fit local needs. Creation of rhyming slang has become a word game for people of many classes and regions. The term ‘Cockney’ rhyming slang is generally applied to these expansions to indicate the rhyming style; though arguably the term only applies to phrases used in the East End of London. Similar formations do exist in other parts of the United Kingdom; for example, in the East Midlands, the local accent has formed «Derby Road», which rhymes with «cold»: a conjunction that would not be possible in any other dialect of the UK.) Polari(or alternatively Parlare, Parlary, Palare, Palarie, Palari, Parlyaree, from Italian parlare, «to talk») was a form of cant slang used in Britain by actors, circus or fairground showmen, criminals, prostitutes etc., and latterly by the gay subculture. It was revived in the 1950s and 1960s by its use by camp characters Julian and Sandy in the popular BBC radio shows Beyond our Ken and Round the Horne, but its origins can be traced back to at least the 19th century (or, according to at least one source, to the 16th century). There is some debate about how it originated. There is a longstanding connection with Punch and Judy street puppet performers who traditionally used Polari to talk with each other. [6]is a mixture of Romance (Italian or Mediterranean Lingua Franca), Romany, London slang, backslang, rhyming slang, sailor slang, and thieves’ cant. Later it expanded to contain words from the Yiddish language of the Jewish subculture which settled in the East End of London, the US forces (present in the UK during World War II) and 1960s drug users. It was a constantly developing form of language, with a small core lexicon of about 20 words (including bona, ajax, eek, cod, naff, lattie, nanti, omi, palone, riah, zhoosh (tjuz), TBH, trade, vada), with over 500 other lesser-known items.2002, two books on Polari were published, Polari: The Lost Language of Gay Men, and Fantabulosa: A Dictionary of Polari and Gay Slang (both by Paul Baker). Also in 2002, hip hop artist Juha released an album called Polari, with the chorus of the title song written entirely in the slang. [37]Definitionnelllisten, hearnellsearsnelly fakesearringsnell danglersearrings) Internet slangslang (Internet language, Internet Short-hand, leet, netspeak or chatspeak) is a type of slang that Internet users have popularized, and in many cases, have coined. Such terms often originate with the purpose of saving keystrokes. Many people use the same abbreviations in texting and instant messaging, and social networking websites. Acronyms, keyboard symbols and shortened words are often used as methods of abbreviation in Internet slang. [6]such cases, new dialects of slang, such as leet or Lolspeak, develop as ingroup memes rather than time savers. In leet speak, letters may be replaced by characters of similar appearance. For this reason, leet is often written as l33t or 1337.Internet has transformed the way we manipulate our systems of signs and the relationships between producers and consumers of information. Its effect on slang has two aspects. Firstly, online communication has generated its own vocabulary of technical terminology, essentially jargon (spam, blogging, phishing) and informal, abbreviated or humorous terms (addy, noob, barking moonbat etc.) which qualify as slang. The amount of new cyberslang is fairly small, but the Internet has also allowed the collecting, classifying and promoting of slang from other sources in. [7]technical development — text messaging — has triggered changes in the culture of communication, especially among young people, and brought with it, like telegrams, CB-radio or Internet chatrooms, a new form of abbreviated code. It has excited some academic linguists but it hasnt, however, contributed anything meaningful to the evolution of slang.or phraseAbbreviation(s)acc, acct or acntaddy or addn, an, nd, or &ntcp8cuz, bcuz, bcz, bcos, bc, cos, coz, cz or bcozfriend or Boyfriendbf or b/fbtwn or b/w) Slang of army, police.slang is an array of colloquial terminology used commonly by military personnel, including slang which is unique to or originates with the armed forces.

· The Andrew/Grey Funnel Ferries — The Royal Navy, named for some important bloke or a Saint or something. ·Blighty — The UK, the name was taken from a province in India…

· Brag Rags — Medals.

· Cant-be-arrsed-itis — suffered mainly by those on exercise

· «Chin-strapped» — «chin-strap» — tired knackered

· Combat Suit — Jacket, trousers, and possibly hood, cap, etc., made from DPM material.

· Doss-bag — Army Issue Barnes-Wallace, Gonk-bag and Green Maggot.

· Dust — Washing powder.

· Gat — rifle (also Bunduk, or Bang-Stick) (mainly used by «Hats»).

· Green/Bleeds green — a keen soldier, probably should watched suspiciously…from a long way away. [38]

· NAAFI — «Navy, Army and Air Force Institutes». Quasi-civilian non-profit retaining such as tea, pies, cakes and sandwiches to the troops within garrisons worldwide. Pronounced ‘NAFF-ee’, it was created in 1921 to run recreational establishments for the Armed forces to sell goods to servicemen and their families. It runs clubs, bars, (EFI), which provides NAAFI facilities in war zones.

· Puttees — long strips of flannel cloth in shades of khaki, rifle green or black, wrapped tightly at the top of ankle-boots to provide support over rough ground (now CVHQ RA) [6]

· Sangar — possibly derived from the Indian; usually a low wall with side wings built to give cover from fire in areas where digging is difficult or impossible. [34]

· Sky Pilot — The Padre — he’s got his head in the clouds talking to his boss.

· Stripey — Sergeant.

· Teeny-weeny Airways — The Army Air Corps.

· Warry (or War-y) — aggressive, militaristic; can be an insult. [38]

· Webbing — cotton for belt as worn by the type of ladies I never get to meet, and several dodgy RM types down Union St. [37]are more than a hundred words for «police» in different glossaries. And this is by no means a unique case.taken from the coloring of police clothes or the coloring of police cars: blue boy, blue jeans, man-in-the-blue, salt and pepper, black and white, blue and white;female police officer: girlie bear, honey bear, lady bear, mama bear, sugar bear, smokey beaver; [36]city policeman or rural police: citty kitty, country Joe, country mounty, little bear, local yokel;police: boogey man, boy scouts, state bears, whatevers; barnies, bear, bearded bubby, big brother, bull, Dudley, do-right, Peter Rabbit;unmarked or hidden police car: brown-paper bag, night crawler, pink panther, slick top, sneaky snake;radar unit: shotgun, electric teeth, gunrunner, Kojak with a Kodak, smoke screen [6]police helicopter: bear in the air, eye in the sky, spy in the sky, tattle tale There have found new expressions for an already established concept; such expressions that make them appear to be saying one thing while they are really communicating something very different to insiders. [7]and description:

· ABH: Actual bodily harm

· D&D: Drunk And Disorderly

· DIP: Drunk In Public

· GBH: Grievous Bodily Harm

· TDA: Taking and Driving Away

· TWOC: Taken Without Owner’s Consent [6]describing situations:

· ASNT: Area Searched No Trace

· FATAC: Fatal Road Traffic Accident

· MFH: Missing From Home

· NAI: Non-Accidental Injury

· RTA: Road-Traffic Accident [6]) Money slangthe origins of these slang terms are many and various, certainly a lot of English money slang is rooted in various London communities, which for different reasons liked to use language only known in their own circles, notably wholesale markets, street traders, crime and the underworld, the docks, taxi-cab driving, and the immigrant communities. London has for centuries been extremely cosmopolitan, both as a travel hub and a place for foreign people to live and work and start their own businesses. This contributed to the development of some ‘lingua franca’ expressions, i.e., mixtures of Italian, Greek, Arabic, Yiddish (Jewish European/Hebrew dialect), Spanish and English which developed to enable understanding between people of different nationalities, rather like a pidgin or hybrid English. Certain lingua franca blended with ‘parlyaree’ or ‘polari’, which is basically underworld slang. [38]also contributes several slang money words. Backslang reverses the phonetic (sound of the) word, not the spelling, which can produce some strange interpretations, and was popular among market traders, butchers and greengrocers.are the most common and/or interesting British slang money words and expressions, with meanings, and origins where known. Many are now obsolete; typically words which relate to pre-decimalisation coins, although some have re-emerged and continue to do so.non-slang words are included where their origins are particularly interesting, as are some interesting slang money expressions which originated in other parts of the world, and which are now entering the English language.are some examples of money slang words:= two thousand pounds (£2,000), late 20th century, from the Jeffrey Archer court case in which he was alleged to have bribed call-girl Monica Coughlan with this amount. [6]

ayrton senna/ayrton = tenner (ten pounds, £10) — cockney rhyming slang created in the 1980s or early 90s, from the name of the peerless Brazilian world champion Formula One racing driver, Ayrton Senna (1960-94), who won world titles in 1988, 90 and 91, before his tragic death at San Marino in 1994. [35]/bag of sand = grand = one thousand pounds (£1,000), seemingly recent cockney rhyming slang, in use from around the mid-1990s in Greater London; perhaps more widely too. [38]= a pound, from the late 1800s, and earlier a sovereign, probably from Romany gypsy ‘bauro’ meaning heavy or big, and also influenced by allusion to the iron bars use as trading currency used with Africans, plus a possible reference to the custom of casting of precious metal in bars. [38] = three pounds (£3) or three hundred pounds (£300), or sometimes thirty pounds (£30). This has confusing and convoluted origins, from as early as the late 1800s: It seems originally to have been a slang term for a three month prison sentence, based on the following: that ‘carpet bag’ was cockney rhyming slang for a ‘drag’, which was generally used to describe a three month sentence; also that in the prison workshops it supposedly took ninety days to produce a certain regulation-size piece of carpet; and there is also a belief that prisoners used to be awarded the luxury of a piece of carpet for their cell after three year’s incarceration. The term has since the early 1900s been used by bookmakers and horse-racing, where carpet refers to odds of three-to-one, and in car dealing, where it refers to an amount of £300. [6]= a shilling (1/-) and earlier, mid-late 1800s a pound or a sovereign. According to Cassells chip meaning a shilling is from horse-racing and betting. The association with a gambling chip is logical. Chip and chipping also have more general associations with money and particularly money-related crime, where the derivations become blurred with other underworld meanings of chip relating to sex and women (perhaps from the French ‘chipie’ meaning a vivacious woman) and narcotics (in which chip refers to diluting or skimming from a consignment, as in chipping off a small piece — of the drug or the profit). [6]and hen = ten pounds. The ten pound meaning of cock and hen is 20th century rhyming slang. Cock and hen — also cockerel and hen — has carried the rhyming slang meaning for the number ten for longer. Its transfer to ten pounds logically grew more popular through the inflationary 1900s as the ten pound amount and banknote became more common currency in people’s wages and wallets, and therefore language. Cock and hen also gave raise to the variations cockeren, cockeren and hen, hen, and the natural rhyming slang short version, cock — all meaning ten pounds. [40]

commodore = fifteen pounds (£15). The origin is almost certainly London, and the clever and amusing derivation reflects the wit of Londoners: Cockney rhyming slang for five pounds is a ‘lady’, (from Lady Godiva = fiver); fifteen pounds is three-times five pounds (3x£5=£15); ‘Three Times a Lady’ is a song recorded by the group The Commodores; and there you have it: Three Times a Lady = fifteen pounds = a commodore. (Thanks Simon Ladd, Jun 2007) [37] cows = a pound, 1930s, from the rhyming slang ‘cow’s licker’ = nicker (nicker means a pound). The word cows means a single pound since technically the word is cow’s, from cow’s licker. [35]

deep sea diver = fiver (£5), heard in use Oxfordshire late 1990s, this is rhyming slang dating from the 1940s. [6]/french loaf = four pounds, most likely from the second half of the 1900s, cockney rhyming slang for rofe (french loaf = rofe), which is backslang for four, also meaning four pounds. Easy when you know how. [27]

garden/garden gate = eight pounds (£8), cockney rhyming slang for eight, naturally extended to eight pounds. In spoken use ‘a garden’ is eight pounds. Incidentally garden gate is also rhyming slang for magistrate, and the plural garden gates is rhyming slang for rates. The word garden features strongly in London, in famous place names such as Hatton Garden, the diamond quarter in the central City of London, and Covent Garden, the site of the old vegetable market in West London, and also the term appears in sexual euphemisms, such as ‘sitting in the garden with the gate unlocked’, which refers to a careless pregnancy. [31]/generalize = a shilling (1/-), from the mid 1800s, thought to be backslang. Also meant to lend a shilling, apparently used by the middle classes, presumably to avoid embarrassment. Given that backslang is based on phonetic word sound not spelling, the conversion of shilling to generalize is just about understandable, if somewhat tenuous, and in the absence of other explanation is the only known possible derivation of this odd slang. [37]

grand = a thousand pounds (£1,000 or $1,000) Not pluralised in full form. Shortened to ‘G’ (usually plural form also) or less commonly ‘G’s’. Originated in the USA in the 1920s, logically an association with the literal meaning — full or large. greens = money, usually old-style green coloured pound notes, but actully applying to all money or cash-earnings since the slang derives from the cockney rhyming slang: ‘greengages’ (= wages). [6]

1.3 The definiton and classification of idioms

ultimate root of the term is a Greek lexeme «idios», meaning own, private, peculiar. The same underlying form can be found in the prefix idio — as well as an idiot and its derivatives.English idiom is a group of words with a special meaning different from the meanings of its constituent words. Strictly speaking, idioms are expressions that are not readily understandable from their literal meaning of individual elements. In a broad sense, idiom may include colloquialisms, Catchphrases, slang expressions, proverbs, etc. They form an important part of the English vocabulary.of English idiomsof English idioms: everyday life of English people, agricultural life, nautical and military life, business life, student life, food and cooking, sports and card-playing, the Bible, Shakespeare’s plays, fables, myths, legends etc.the classification proposed by acad. Vinogradov phraseological units are classified according to the semantic principle, and namely to the degree of motivation of meaning, i.e. the relationship between the meaning of the whole unit and the meaning of its components. Three groups are distinguished: phraseological fusions (сращения), phraseological unities (единства), phraseological combinations (сочетания). [22, p. 178]

. Phraseological fusions are non-motivated. The meaning of the whole is not deduced from the meanings of the components: to kiss the hares foot (опаздывать), to kick the bucket (сыграть в ящик), the kings picture (фальшивая монета)

. Phraseological unities are motivated through the image expressed in the whole construction, the metaphores on which they are based are transparent: to turn over a new leaf, to dance on a tight rope.

. Phraseological combinations are motivated; one of their components is used in its direct meaning while the other can be used figuratively: bosom friend, to get in touch with.. Smirnitsky classifies phraseological units according to the functional principle. Two groups are distinguished: phraseological units and idioms. [24, p. 319]units are neutral, non-metaphorical when compared to idioms: get up, fall asleep, to take to drinking. Idioms are metaphoric, stylistically coloured: to take the bull by the horns, to beat about the bush, to bark up the wrong tree.prof. Smirnitsky distinguishes one-summit (one-member) and many-summit (two-member, three-member, etc.) phraseological units, depending on the number of notional words: against the grain (не по душе), to carry the day (выйти победителем), to have all ones eggs in one basket. [24, p. 329]. Amosova classifies phraseological units according to the type of context. Phraseological units are marked by fixed (permanent) context, which cant be changed: French leave (but not Spanish or Russian). Two groups are singled out: phrasemes and idioms. [22, p. 160]

. Prasemes consist of two components one of which is praseologically bound, the second serves as the determining context: green eye (ревнивый взгляд), green hand (неопытный работник), green years (юные годы), green wound (незажившая рана), etc.

. Idioms are characterized by idiomaticity: their meaning is created by the whole group and is not a mere combination of the meanings of its components: red tape (бюрократическая волокита), mares nest (нонсенс), to pin ones heart on ones sleeve (не скрывать своих чувств). Prof. Koonins classification is based on the function of the phraseological unit in communication. Phraseological units are classified into: nominative, nominative-communicative, interjectional, communicative. [24, p. 100] 1. Nominative phraseological units are units denoting objects, phenomena, actions, states, qualities. They can be:) substantive — a snake in the grass (змея подколодная), a bitter pill to swallow;) adjectival — long in the tooth (старый);) adverbial — out of a blue sky, as quick as a flash;) prepositional — with an eye to (с намерением), at the head of.

. Nominative-communicative units contain a verb: to dance on a volcano, to set the Thames on fire (сделать что-то необычное), to know which side one’s bread is buttered, to make (someone) turn (over) in his grave, to put the hat on smbs misery (в довершение всех его бед).

. Interjectional phraseological units express the speakers emotions and attitude to things: ^ A pretty kettle of fish! (хорошенькое дельце), Good God! God damn it! Like hell!

. Communicative phraseological units are represented by provebs (An hour in the morning is worth two in the evening; Never say «never») and sayings. Sayings, unlike provebs, are not evaluative and didactic: ^ Thats another pair of shoes! Its a small world.linguists (N.N. Amosova, J. Casares) dont include proverbs and sayings into their classifications. Others (I.V. Arnold, A.V. Koonin, V.V. Vinogradov) do, on the grounds that 1) like in phraseological units their components are never changed 2) phraseological units are often formed on the basis of proverbs and sayings (A drowning man will clutch at a straw → to clutch at a straw). [22, p. 173] 1. Phrase idioms All phrase idioms have a noun, verb, adjective, preposition or an adverb as the central word; they correspond to the familiar parts of speech, and capable of a given syntactic function in sentences.

) Verb phrase idiom: Verb phrase idioms are combinations of a verb and an adverb — look up, or a verb and a preposition — make for, or a verb with both adverb and preposition — come round to. The features:1)Often nearly synonymous with loan words of Roman origin, e.g. work out(the salaries)can be respectively replaced by a single synonymous Roman loan word — calculate. 2)Can form noun compounds. e.g. A gang of thieves di a break-in last night. 3)Usually more lively and expressive than single verbs. e.g. The firecracker went off and scared my little sister.(more lively than exploded) [22, p. 120]

) Syntactic, structural and stylistic analysis of idiom) Syntactic function: The syntactic function of a phrase idiom usually corresponds with its central word/or components, for example, a verb phrase idiom always functions as a predicate in a sentence, an adjective phrase idiom usually operates as a complement. e.g. the last straw, the salt of the earth usually appear as complement.) Transformational restrictions:is a matter of structural change, and the change may be of various kinds. Transformation may involve simply a change word order in a sentence, but only little idioms do so. e.g. The electricity went off. — Off went the electricity.) Collocative restrictions: Words which combine with other words, or with idioms, in particular grammatical constructions, are said to collocate with those words or idioms. e.g. phrase idiom all set are limited to be, feel, get, look, seem, as in «She was all set to buy a new house.» [34]) Structural variabilityvariability: Idioms are structurally fixed, an as a rule one is not supposed to change any element in an idiomatic expression. But sometimes make slight changes for rhetorical effect. e.g.horse of the same colour — Shakespeare (from » a horse of another colour» [31] In dictionaries of idioms the traditional and oldest principle for classifying phraseological units — the thematic principle — is used.etymological classification of phraseological unitsto their origin phraseological units are divided into native and borrowed.phraseological units are connected with British realia, traditions, history:bell book and candle (jocular) — бесповоротно. This unit originates from the text of the form of excommunication (отлучение от церкви) which ends with the following words: ^ Doe to the book, quench the candle, ring the book! carry coal to Newcastle (parallells: Ехать в Тулу со своим самоваром, везти сов в Афины, везти пряности в Иран)

According to Cocker — по всем правилам, точно. E. Cocker is the author of a well-known book on arithmetic.native phraseological units also belong familiar quotations came from works of English literature. A lot of them were borrowed from works by Shakespeare: a fools paradise («Romeo and Juliet»), the green-eyed monster («Othello»), murder will out — шила в мешке не утаишь («Macbeth»), etc. [27, p. 154]great number of native phraseological units originate from professional terminologies or jargons: ones last card, the game is up/over lay one’s cards on the table hold all the aces (terms of gambling).phraseological units come from several sources.number of units were borrowed from the Bible and were fully assimilated: to cast pearl before swine, the root of all evil, a woolf in sheeps clothing, to beat swords into plough-shares. A great amount of units were taken from ancient mythology and literature: the apple of discord, the golden age, the thread of Ariadne, at the greek calends (до греческих календ, никогда), etc, They are international in their character.

A lot of phraseologisms were borrowed from different languages — lets return to our muttons (revenons à nos moutons), blood and iron (принцип политики Бисмарка — Blut und Eisen), blue blood, to lose face (кит. tiu lien) and from the other variants of the English language (AmE) — a green light, bark up the wrong tree, to look like a million dollars, time is money (B. Franklin «Advice to a Young Tradesman»). [26, p. 234]- building expressions — these are some common expressions that help to modify or organize what we are saying. There are many expressions like these. For example: as I was saying (it takes the conversation back to an earlier point). Some everyday expressions can be grouped around key words. The preposition «in» for example, occurs in several expressions: in fact (really), in practice (actually). Common expressions for modifying statements are also a part of this group. For example: as far as Im concerned (from my point of view). As… as… similes and expressions with «like are easy to understand. If you see the phrase as dead as a doornail, you Don T need to know what a doornail is, simply that the whole phrase means «totally dead». But its important to remember that fixed similes are not «neutral»; they are usually informal or colloquial and often humorous.describing people can be divided into two sub-groups:connected with positive and negative qualities, for example: His fingers are all thumbs (hes clumsy) or She has iron nerves (shes composed). How people relate to the social norm, for example: I think Mary has a secret to hide (She keeps something from us). I have divided idioms describing feelings or mood into three sub — groups. They are positive and negative feelings, moods and states. For example: to get on someones nerves (to exasperate), to have a horror of (to disgust), to be as happy as the day is long (extremely content). Physical feelings and states. For example: to burst into tears (to cry). And peoples fear or fright. For example: She was scared stiff, (very scared). Next group is idioms connected with problematic situations. The first sub — group is problems and difficulties. For example: a hard luck (failure). The second sub — group is idioms related to situations based on get. For example: to get frustrated (defeat). The third sub — group is changes and staves in situations. For example: to change ones mind (think better of it). At last idioms connected with easing the situation. For example: to do well (recover), to get off lightly (escape). Idioms connected with praise and criticism, for example: to go on at someone (criticize). Idioms connected with using language and communication. Idioms connected with communication problems. For example: to have a row with somebody (to quarrel). Good and bad talk. For example: stream of consciousness (flow of words). Talk in discussions, meetings, etc. For example: to strike up (a conversation) (to start a conversation). Idioms — miscellaneous. Idioms connected with paying, buying and selling. For example: to save up for (put by). Idioms based on names of the parts of the body. For example: to lend an ear (to listen to). Idioms connected with daily routine. For example: to do up (tidy up). There are also single idioms which cannot be included into described above groups. For example to run out (to come to an end) and some special groups of expressions in «Blueprint» such as all along (always), all in all (as a result), all of a sudden (unexpectedly). The last group of idioms is proverbs. For example: «Out of the frying Pan and into the fire» (from one disaster into another).

1.4 The difficulties of translation of slang and idioms from English into Russian

is a system of communication that is used by a particular community of speakers. It has literal and figurative meanings. The literal meaning is the direct reference of words or sentences to objects. The figurative sense, however, is different from the literal one in the sense that it is used for giving an imaginative description or a special effect. In this case, the meaning of individual words in an expression has nothing to do in the comprehension of the whole meaning. Such a meaning characterizes notions like metaphors, similes and idioms. Idioms have a great extent use in everyday language, and they are considered as one of the most frequently used means of non-literal language. Their frequent, spontaneous and appropriate use is usually a mark of good English, and an indication of native or near native command of the language. The problem, however, is that despite recent development in the field of translation theory and application, idiomatic expressions still pose a serious challenge for translators and foreign learners.process comprises at least to stages: understanding the source text and selecting a translation variant. Translation theory tries to explore the transition from the source text to the target text and find out what regular patterns from the basis for translators action. Translation process is viewed in the framework of human cognitive activity in terms of cognitive translatology based on the concept of translation activity as an interaction of individual cognitive and linguistic structures in the broadest context of individual psychosemiotic characterology. Translation process id marked by conceptual, sociocultural, linguistic, textual and communicative constants. Comparing traditional and cognitive and activity-oriented trends in translation studies, authors point out that a partial research object is replaced by an integral research object. [12, p. 76]T.A. Fesenko puts it, a translator is assigned to interpret a source text semantic code, and it is not the verbal forms, but the concepts behind them that are translated. A translator interprets the conceptual program of the source text and authors the conceptual program of the target text. The projected source text is initially processed in the «uncontrolled workspace» with the help of schemata and frames serving as the long-term memory structural framework. At the initial stage of the text perception a general pattern is formed, encompassing the widest range of translators cognitive resources. Data received during initial processing of the source text allow for the development of a macrostrategy, defining the translation framework and further mental processes that are then carried out in the «controlled workspace». [20, p. 49].G. Minchenkov suggests that understanding the source text and producing the target text are multistep processes operating in shuttle mode. Producing the target text is parallel to understanding the source text. In the process of source text understanding the text units activates the conventional concepts in a translators consciousness that interact with background and contextual knowledge available to a translator. This interaction results in the actualization of subjective concepts shaping senses in a translators consciousness. In a number of cases sense is shaped almost spontaneously, but it also often requires quite a long and complex cognitive search performed by a translator. Knowledge of meanings of the source text units and knowledge of the world determine the invariability of source text understanding by different translators. Differences in individual background knowledge and personal perception stipulate the variability of the source text understanding. A translator employs two kinds of search: a cognitive search for sense and a heuristic search for means of verbalization. [13, p. 70]an idiom or fixed expression has been recognized and interpreted correctly, the next step is to decide how to translate it into the target language. The difficulties involved in translating an idiom are totally different from those involved in interpreting it. Here, the question is not wether a given idiom is transparent, opaque, or misleading. An opaque expression may be easier to translate than a transparent one. The main difficulties involved in translating idioms and fixed expressions may be summarized as follows:idiom or fixed expression may have no equivalent in the target language. The way a language chooses to express, or not express, various meanings cannot be predicted and only occasionally matches the way another language chooses to express the same meanings. One language may express a given meaning by means of a single word, another may express it by means of a transparent fixed expression, a third may express it by means of an idiom, and so on. It is therefore unrealistic to expect to find equivalent idioms and expressions in the target language as a matter of course.are various types of idioms, some more easily recognizable than others. Those which are easily recognizable include expressions which violate truth conditions. They also include expressions which seem ill-formed because they do not follow the grammatical rules of the language.first difficulty that a translator comes across is being with an idiomatic expression. Generally speaking, the more difficult an expression is to understand and the less sense it makes in a given context, the more difficult an expression is to understand and the less sense it makes in a given context, the more likely a translator will recognize it as an idiom. Because they do not make sense of interpreted literally, the high-lighted expressions in the following text are easy to recognize as idioms.way in which an idiom can be translated into another language depends on many factors. It is not only a question on many factors. It is not only a question of whether an idiom with a similar meaning is available in the target language. Other factors include, for example, the significance of the specific lexical items which constitute the idiom, i.e. whether they are manipulated elsewhere in the source text as well as the appropriateness or inappropriateness of using idiomatic language in a given register in the target language.translation of slang has always caused many problems for translators because of its cultural untranslatability. Its translation is a highly specific undertaking requiring creativity to render the effect of the source text in a form appropriate for the target culture and audience.borrowings and slang, which is not straightforward in most cases. Moreover, it presents the prevailing strategies applied for the translation of slang, i.e. preservation, softening and compensation, and expands on their application in the target text.use of slang in fiction has always presented many problems to translators no matter what languages they work with. This is due to the specific features of slang arising not only from its deep cultural specificity, but also from close connection to smaller communities or even subgroups within a particular culture. With respect to such a nature of slang, it is probably impossible to find one universal method for handling slang-related translation problems.make such a distinction it is necessary to overview the basic features of slang and borrowings. Although slang is difficult to define, there are several features typical of slang: it is an informal variety of language used and understood by a certain group of people; slang ascribes new meanings to old words and invents completely new words; however, it changes very quickly and its words either die out or may enter the standard language [Fromkin, Rodman, Hyans, 2007, pp. 439-440]. Additionally, name-calling, or nicknames are closely related to slang; moreover, they are usually highly expressive and are often secretly used behind persons back and addressed directly only with the intention to insult [Blok, 2001, p. 156]the given definition enumerates several features typical of slang, the key one is the meaning that slangy words carry, which is closely related to their transience. Thus, the property of being short-lived explains the «colourfulness» of slang which emerges due to constant reinvention of meanings. Inventiveness of slang adds «many new words into the language by recombining old words into new meanings», it also «introduces entirely new words» and «often consists of ascribing entirely new meanings to old words» (Fromkin, Rodman, Hyans, 2007, p. 439). The mentioned sources are two of the three ways how slang items emerge into a language; thus, apart from invention of new words and changing the old ones, borrowing is also considered a source for slang (Andersson and Trudgill, 1990, pp. 82-84). This suggests that slang may be coined in several rather broad ways which results in a constant play with language and its change.to Mattiello, changes in meaning are the example of a semantic shift when slang items acquire new meanings or the existing meanings are broadly extended. Moreover, she states that new slang items also emerge through word formation which incorporates such processes as affixation, compounding, conversion, abbreviation (clipping, blending, acronyming), etc. (ibid.). [12, p. 348]next process is called conversion and involves a transfer of a word from one part of speech to another. The use of the preposition off as a verb meaning to kill is given as an example. One more method is abbreviation that is divided into clipping, i.e. abbreviating a word to one of its parts; blending, merging parts of words into one word; and acronyming, coining words by taking their initial letters. All of the mentioned techniques result in variety, ingenuity and liveliness of slang since they provide numerous ways of altering and re-inventing words.Formation in the Creation of Slang (Mattiello, 2008)of the Example: Kiddo = Kid + o; a child [6]: Baglady =Bag + lady: a homeless woman, often elderly, who carries her possessions in shopping bagscontrast to slang, borrowings preserve their original meaning (or a part of it) when they enter another language through a certain language contact, such as bilingualism or translation (Hartmann and James, 1998, p. 16). This may be illustrated by the classification of borrowings as follows:- which show the importation of form and meaning with degrees of phonological integration (all, none, or partial); [31]- hybrids or combinations of foreign and native forms /…/; [6]- in which a foreign concept (meaning) is represented by a native form (Haugen, 1950, pp. 214-215).three types of borrowings explain the method of integrating a foreign word into one or another language by preserving the whole, or at least a part, of the original meaning. A loanword is a type of borrowing which preserves not only the exact meaning of the original, but also the form. Similarly, a loanshift has an original meaning but a different form, whereas in a loanblend at least a part of the meaning is retained.the fact that culture-bound slang is a highly specific translation problem where each case requires separate consideration, a number of literary sources suggest preservation, softening and compensation as typical strategies that are most common to translate slang.slang is closely tied not only to the culture, but often even to a specific subgroup of that culture, it needs special attention as regards its translation. It often requires various adaptations and for this reason, as noticed by Fawcett, softening is a frequent strategy in slang translation as «slang seems to be quite regularly expunged or weakened in translation» (1997, p. 119). Hence, slang is rarely literally translated: it may be rendered using more neutral or general words or even omitted if a translator considers a slang item too culturally specific and alien to the target culture reader as the primary purpose is to produce a naturally sounding target text. In this regard, softening is seen to be «focused on the perception of the target text reader; the language of the target text is formulated in such a way that is sounds natural and comprehensible to the reader» (Butkuviene, Petrulione, 2010, p. 39). If translators come across any item which appears untranslatable due to, for example, linguistic or cultural differences among languages, they may compensate the omission in some other place of the target text where such item seems stylistically appropriate. Furthermore, compensation by merging implies that rather long stylistic features of the source text may be shortened in the target text in order to avoid complicated, foreign-sounding structures which distort the style and is incompatible with the genre. Finally, compensation by splitting denotes an expanded translation of a particular item when the target language does not have an appropriate expression which carries the meaning intended by the source text item.

2. Slang and idioms in Mark Twains work

2.1 Mark Twains biography

2.2 Slang and idioms in Mark Twains work

Adventures of Tom Sawyer, written by Mark Twain in 1876, is about twelve-year-old Tom Sawyer living the small-town life — and getting into a lot of trouble with his friends — in antebellum (pre-Civil War) Missouri. The book, loosely based on Twain’s childhood exploits, has become a classic portrait of mischievous youth — well, in America anyway. As is the case with many now-classic books, Tom Sawyer was not well-acclaimed upon its initial release; and even now Twain’s thicker, weightier sequel-of-sorts, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, which borrows its setting and characters from Tom Sawyer, is considered his masterpiece., Huck himself would be the first to tell you what a great book Tom Sawyer is. Huck Finn opens The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by making a plug for Tom Sawyer:

«YOU don’t know about me without you have read a book by the name of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer; but that ain’t no matter. That book was made by Mr. Mark Twain, and he told the truth, mainly. There was things which he stretched, but mainly he told the truth. That is nothing.» (Huckleberry Finn 1.1)attempted to write a bunch of Tom Sawyer adventures, including Tom Sawyer Abroad (1894) and Tom Sawyer, Detective (1894), along with the unfinished Huck and Tom Among the Indians, Schoolhouse Hill, and Tom Sawyer’s Conspiracy. Sure, a lot of the particulars of Tom’s life — whitewashing, marble-playing, spelunking — may not be familiar to the average American anymore, but there’s something about Tom, something about his spirit and the way Mark Twain renders it in prose, that’s remained relevant for all these years. Heck, you don’t see rock bands writing about The Portrait of a Lady. [18, p. 270]1995 a film called Tom and Huck was released, starring teen heartthrobs Jonathan Taylor Thomas and Brad Renfro. This movie, based on Mark Twain’s Adventures of Tom Sawyer.of idioms and expressions in Mark Twains book «The adventures of Tom Sawyer».:

) English: She seldom or never looked THROUGH them for so small a thing as a boy; they were her state pair, the pride of her heart, and were built for «style,» not service — she could have seen through a pair of stove-lids just as well. [18, p. 3] Not this (Chapter 1, page 3)

Russian: Она очень редко, почти никогда не глядела сквозь очки на такую мелочь, как мальчишка; это были парадные очки, ее гордость, приобретенные для красоты, а не для пользы, и что-нибудь разглядеть сквозь них ей было так же трудно, как сквозь пару печных заслонок. [19, c. 5]: There are idioms in this sentence. «State pair» — in this sentence means favourite glasses, which aunt Polly used to wear only when she went out.

…not service-she could have seen through a pair of stove-lids just as well, meaning that aunt Polly could see nothing in these glasses, therefore they were useless.

) English: «Well, I lay if I get hold of you I’ll -» [18, p. 4]: Ну погоди, дай только до тебя добраться… [19, c. 6]: This expression in following context is used as a threat. Aunt Polly is trying to say that she will punish Tom, when she will find him.

) English: «I never did see the beat of that boy!» [18, p. 5]

Russian: Что за ребенок, в жизни такого не видывала! [19, c. 7]: Beat is used here in the competitive sense. Bill and John were in a race, Bill won, Bill beat John. So I understand the sentence to mean something like, that boy’s behaviour is in some way or other the most extreme I have ever seen. In this case, probably: I never did see a boy who was more infuriating than Tom! Translating a little: Tom is the most infuriating boy I have ever seen!

) English: There was a slight noise behind her and she turned just in time to seize a small boy by the slack of his roundabout and arrest his flight. [18, p. 7]

Russian: За ее спиной послышался легкий шорох, и она оглянулась — как раз вовремя, чтобы ухватить мальчишку, прежде чем он прошмыгнул в дверь. [19, 11]: This sentence is very difficult to translate literally, because it wouldnt make a sense. The word roundabout — deviating from a straight course; «a scenic but devious route»; «a long and circuitous journey by train and boat»; «a roundabout route avoided rush-hour traffic» indirect — not direct in spatial dimension; not leading by a straight line or course to a destination; «sometimes taking an indirect path saves time»; «you must take an indirect course in sailing»of — to decrease in activity or intensity.his flight-means not to let him to go away.you can notice analyzing the single words in this sentence doent make any sense, so we should try to see the sense in the whole sentence. This time, she hears a soft rustle and turns around just in time to catch Tom as he was trying to sneak behind her and make his escape.

) English: «Nothing! Look at your hands. And look at your mouth. What IS that truck?» [18, p. 9]

Russian: Ничего? Посмотри, в чем у тебя руки? И рот тоже. Это что такое? [19, c. 12]: «Truck» in this use is something unidentified but obviously there. Tom had been eating forbidden jam. Aunt Polly hadn’t yet realized what it was when she asked the question, but she could tell he had something in his mouth that wasn’t supposed to be there!

) English: Forty times I’ve said if you didn’t let that jam alone I’d skin you. Hand me that switch.» [18, p. 11]

Russian: Сорок раз я тебе говорила: не смей трогать варенье — выдеру! Подай сюда розгу. [19, c. 13]: A switch is a long, thin length of branch used to hit kids for acting up (like a spanking, but much worse). Parents make the kid go get the switch from a tree, and if they returned with a small switch, they would be hit more times. The hits would sting and leave red lines where the thin branch lashed across the skin. Tom, however, knew this was coming, and using hit cunning, he creates a diversion to escape the punishment altogether.

) English: The switch hovered in the air — the peril was desperate — [18, p. 13]: Розга засвистела в воздухе, — казалось, беды не миновать. [19, c. 16]: Aunt Polly was going to hit Tom at this moment and there were no ways to escape the trouble.

) English: «Hang the boy, can’t I never learn anything? [18, p. 16]

Russian: Вот и поди с ним! Неужели я так ничему и не научусь? [19, c. 19]: «hang the boy» an expression, which shouldnt be understood word by word. In this sentence aunt Polly is trying to say that she couldnt do anything with Tom.

) English: But old fools is the biggest fools there is. [18, p. 19]

Russian: Но нет хуже дурака, чем старый дурак. [19, c. 21]: An American saying, which means that it is easier to fool old people than young people.

) English: Can’t learn an old dog new tricks, as the saying is. [18, p. 22]

Russian: Недаром говорится: «Старую собаку не выучишь новым фокусам». [19, c. 24]: This is an old proverb, which means that it is difficult to make someone change the way they do something when they have been doing it the same way for a long time.

11) English: But my goodness, he never plays them alike, two days, and how is a body to know what’s coming? He ‘pears to know just how long he can torment me before I get my dander up, and he knows if he can make out to put me off for a minute or make me laugh, it’s all down again and I can’t hit him a lick. [18, p. 24]

Russian: Но ведь, господи ты боже мой, он каждый день что-нибудь да придумает, где же тут угадать. И как будто знает, сколько времени можно меня изводить; знает, что стоит ему меня рассмешить или хоть на минуту сбить с толку, у меня уж и руки опускаются, я даже шлепнуть его не могу. [19, c. 27]: This sentence is very difficult to understand and we cant just translate it word by word. We have to look over the context. This sentence probably means: Tom is constantly surprising Aunt Polly with his mischief, and she admits that he often outsmarts her. She is completely aware of Toms apparent control over her. He knows her exact limits and he knows how to avoid getting spanked or punished one way or another.

) English: Spare the rod and spile the child, as the Good Book says. [18, p. 34]

Russian: Ведь сказано в Писании: кто щадит младенца, тот губит его. [19, c. 37]: The phrase «spare the rod, spoil the child» comes from Proverbs 13:24, «He who spares the rod hates his son, but he who loves him is careful to discipline him.» The Lord uses discipline to reveal our sin to us. This is also how parents reveal the truth of our need for a Savior to their children. When a child does not feel the consequence of his sin, he will not understand that sin requires punishment. The Lord provides a way to salvation and forgiveness through Jesus, but that means little to those who do not see their sin.

) English: He’s full of the Old Scratch, but laws-a-me! he’s my own dead sister’s boy, poor thing, and I ain’t got the heart to lash him, somehow. [18, p. 38]

Russian: Он сущий чертенок, знаю, но ведь он, бедняжка, сын моей покойной сестры, у меня как-то духу не хватает наказывать его. [19, c. 41]: Old Scratch, like Old Nick, is a nickname for the devil. In the last century it was widely used in the eastern United States, especially in New England, as is evident from the Devil’s name for himself in the Stephen Vincent Benét short story «The Devil and Daniel Webster.» Now the term has been regionalized to the South. Old Scratch is attested in the Oxford English Dictionary from the 18th century onward in Great Britain as a colloquialism: «He’d have pitched me to Old Scratch» (Anthony Trollope, 1858). The source of the name is probably the Old Norse word skratte, meaning «a wizard, goblin, monster, or devil.»

) English: Well-a-well, man that is born of woman is of few days and full of trouble, as the Scripture says, and I reckon it’s so. [18, p. 42]

Russian: Недаром ведь сказано в Писании: век человеческий краток и полон скорбей; думаю, что это правда. [19, c. 45]: There is a good explanation of this expression in Bible. Every man of Adam’s fallen race is short-lived. All his show of beauty, happiness, and splendour falls before the stroke of sickness or death, as the flower before the scythe; or passes away like the shadow. How is it possible for a man’s conduct to be sinless, when his heart is by nature unclean? Here is a clear proof that Job understood and believed the doctrine of original sin.

) English: He’ll play hookey this evening, I’ll just be obleeged to make him work, tomorrow, to punish him. [18, p. 46]

Russian: Нынче он отлынивает от школы; придется мне завтра наказать его — засажу за работу. [19, c. 49]: The phrase playing hooky generally refers to a person who skips school or work without a valid excuse, such as illness or an emergency. It may refer to an adult or child. When a school-aged child is caught playing hooky repeatedly, he may be referred to as a truant. Other phrases for missing school or work without an acceptable excuse are absent without leave and playing hooky-crooky. Although the origin of the term «playing hooky» is not exactly known, there is speculation as to how the phrase became known. The phrase may have been derived from a slang expression known as hooking, which means to rob or take something without permission. Someone who is playing hooky, therefore, is thought to be taking a day off without permission. Adults and children often play hooky for various reasons. Some want to ditch class or work to attend to some other business or leisure activity. When a person decides to play hooky, he may feign illness to stay home or go elsewhere.

) English: «Tom, it was middling warm in school, warn’t it?» [18, p. 50]

Russian: Том, в школе было не очень жарко? [19, c. 52]: Usually people nowadays dont say middling warm, this probably means something average between warm and cold.

) English: «Powerful warm, warn’t it?» [18, p. 53]

Russian: А может быть, очень жарко? [19, c. 55]: Mark Twain used this expression powerful warm to describe the hot weather.

) English: And it flattered her to reflect that she had discovered that the shirt was dry without anybody knowing that that was what she had in her mind. But in spite of her, Tom knew where the wind lay, now. [18, p. 55]

Russian: Ей приятно было думать, что она сумела проверить, сухая ли у Тома рубашка, так, что никто не понял, к чему она клонит. Однако Том сразу почуял, куда ветер дует, и предупредил следующий ход: [19, c. 57]

Analysis: The expression to know where the wind lay, means that a person knows what is going to happen in definite situation. Tom understood what aunt Polly was trying to find out.

) English: «Siddy, I’ll lick you for that.» [18, p. 60]

Russian: Я это тебе припомню, Сидди! [19, c. 62]: Tom meant to revenge Sid for his words.

) English: But I bet you I’ll lam Sid for that. [18, p. 63]

Russian: Ну и отлуплю же я Сида. [19, c. 65]: To lam a common slang which means a punishment, Tom was meaning to beat him very hard. It was a usual punishment for boys who were Toms age.

) English: He had a citified air about him that ate into Tom’s vitals. [18, p. 65]

Russian: И вообще вид у него был столичный, чего Том никак не мог стерпеть. [19, c. 68]: This old word «vitals» means a person’s inner being, feelings, soul and heart. It’s everything that is «vital» to a human being. When something «eats into» your vitals, it bothers you so much that you are very troubled. It gnaws at you. It’s like something boring into you. Meaning it got Tom’s vitals go up. Meaning this guy and his appearance annoyed, and pissed Tom off, making his anger go up. His vitals (blood pressure and heart beat per minute) would go up, due to his irritability and disguist and anger at this guy.

) English: Oh, you think you’re mighty smart, DON’T you? [18, p. 68]

Russian: Подумаешь, какой выискался! [19, c. 69]: Tom was meaning that the unknown boy was irritating him and therefore he was the opposite of smart. Tom thought that the well dressed boy was very silly.

) English: I dare you to knock it off — and anybody that’ll take a dare will suck eggs.» [18, p. 71]: Попробуй сбей — тогда узнаешь. [19, c. 73]: There are two idioms in this sentence. To knock if off an American slang this is used nowadays, too. The meaning of the slang is to stop, people say this idiom, when they want somebody stop, and quit doing something. The other slang is — to suck eggs an English-language saying meaning that a person is giving advice to someone else about a subject that they already know about (and probably more than the first person).

) Enlgish: I’ll tell my big brother on you, and he can thrash you with his little finger, and I’ll make him do it, too.» [18, p. 75]

Russian: Вот скажу моему старшему брату, чтоб он тебе задал как следует, так он тебя одним мизинцем поборет. [19, 77]: The word thrash is a slang, which means to beat or to hurt. Tom wanted to say that his brother will beat the unknown boy, and it will be very easy to him.

) English: «I dare you to step over that, and I’ll lick you till you can’t stand up. Anybody that’ll take a dare will steal sheep.» [18, p. 77]: Только перешагни эту черту, я тебя как отлуплю, что своих не узнаешь. Попробуй только, не обрадуешься. [19, c. 79]: I’d guess that ‘will steal sheep’ means ‘is sure to commit a serious crime one day and get hanged for it’, or maybe ‘is the sort of person who commits a serious crime and gets hanged for it’. There is a common expression ‘one might as well be hanged for a sheep as for a lamb’. It seems to fit the context here that Tom threatens serious consequences if the other boy crosses the line.

) English: «Don’t you crowd me now; you better look out.» [18, p. 80]

Russian: Ты не толкайся, а то как дам! [19, c. 82]: To «crowd» someone is to take up too much of their personal space. That could mean «Do not get too close to me». «Do not invade my personal space.»

) English: «By jingo! for two cents I WILL do it.» [18, p. 82]

Russian: Давай два цента, отлуплю. [19, c. 84]: By jingo is an exclamation used to emphasize the truth or importance of a foregoing statement, or to express astonishment, approval, etc.

) English: «Holler ’nuff [18, p. 84]: Проси пощады! [19, c. 86]: This slang was popular many years ago, the meaning was to ask for mercy!

) English: «Oh, I dasn’t, Mars Tom. Ole missis she’d take an’ tar de head off’n me. ‘Deed she would.» [18, p. 90]

Russian: Ой, боюсь, мистер Том. Старая хозяйка мне за это голову оторвет. Ей-богу, оторвет. [19, c. 92]: The «Adventures of Tom Sawyer» was written in those times when African — american people didnt have many rights and used to work for white people. Jim was a little African American boy. He used to speak not grammatically right. Mark Twain showed us the situation in those times, when black children couldnt go to school and they didnt get educated. Jims expression shed take an tar de head ofn me meant that if he wouldnt do what aunt Polly told him to do she will tear off his head. Of course, Jim didnt mean that aunt Polly will tear off his head literally, but he wanted to explain Tom that he will get punished for not obeying aunt Polly.

) English: I’ll give you a marvel. I’ll give you a white alley!» [18, p. 93]

Russian: Джим, я тебе шарик подарю! Я тебе подарю белый с мраморными жилками! [19, c. 95]: An alley is a fine marble used as the shooter in playing marbles.

) English: Sighing, he dipped his brush and passed it along the topmost plank; repeated the operation; did it again; compared the insignificant whitewashed streak with the far-reaching continent of unwhitewashed fence, and sat down on a tree-box discouraged. [18, p. 95]

Russian: Вздыхая, он окунул кисть в ведро и провел ею по верхней доске забора, повторил эту операцию, проделал ее снова, сравнил ничтожную выбеленную полоску с необозримым материком некрашеного забора и уселся на загородку под дерево в полном унынии. [19, c. 97]: Whitewash a mixture of lime, whiting, size, water, etc., for whitening walls and other surfaces. At the time of Tom Sawyer the whitewash was widely used instead of paints.

) English: «White alley, Jim! And it’s a bully taw.» [18, p. 97]

Russian: Белый мраморный, Джим! Это тебе не пустяки! [19, c. 99]

Analysis: A bully taw is a big shooting marble. It is used to shoot with when playing the game of marbles. It has many features that are used to make it colourful and is made from glass or steel.

) English: Tom went on whitewashing — paid no attention to the steamboat. Ben stared a moment and then said: «Hi-YI! YOU’RE up a stump, ain’t you!» [18, p. 100]

Russian: Том по-прежнему белил забор, не обращая на пароход никакого внимания. Бен уставился на него и сказал: — Ага, попался, взяли на причал! [19, c. 101]: To be up a stump is the same as To be up a tree, which is to say you have a big or unsolvable problem. Ben was glad to see Tom working, and wanted to joke at him, paying attention at the fact that he was having a long holiday and Tom had to work.

) English: «No — is that so? Oh come, now — lemme just try. Only just a little — I’d let YOU, if you was me, Tom.» [18, p. 101]

Russian: Да что ты? Слушай, пусти хоть попробовать, хоть чутьчуть. Том, я бы тебя пустил, если б ты был на моем месте. [19, c. 102]: The word lemme is a short variant of let me. Mark Twain tried to show how boys in Tom Sawyers times used to talk. It was cool to talk such way.

) English: «Oh, shucks, I’ll be just as careful. Now lemme try. Say — I’ll give you the core of my apple.» [18, p. 102]

) English: Big Missouri worked and sweated in the sun, the retired artist sat on a barrel in the shade close by, dangled his legs, munched his apple, and planned the slaughter of more innocents. [18, p. 103]

Russian: И пока бывший пароход «Большая Миссури» трудился в поте лица на солнцепеке, удалившийся от дел художник, сидя в тени на бочонке, болтал ногами, жевал яблоко и обдумывал дальнейший план избиения младенцев. [19, c. 104]: If you look for this word «slaughter» in any dictionary you would find the following definition: The killing of a large number of people; a massacre. But Mark Twain didnt mean that Tom was going to kill somebody. The word is used to describe that Tom just wanted to fool other boys, to use boys to do his job.

) English: And while she closed with a happy Scriptural flourish, he «hooked» a doughnut. [18, p. 104]

Russian: И пока она заканчивала свою речь очень кстати подвернувшимся текстом из Писания, Том успел стянуть у нее за спиной пряник. [19, c. 105]: To hook is a slang which means to take something without the permission. Tom took a doughnut, while aunt Polly didnt pay attention at him.

) English: These two great commanders did not condescend to fight in person — that being better suited to the still smaller fry — but sat together on an eminence and conducted the field operations by orders delivered through aides-de-camp. [18, p. 106]: Оба великих полководца не унижались до того, чтобы сражаться самим, — это больше подходило всякой мелюзге, — они сидели вместе на возвышении и руководили военными действиями, рассылая приказы через адъютантов. [19, c. 108] Analysis: This sentence is difficult to understand, because it was written in a special style, which is very charachteristic for Mark Twain. The meaning of the sentence is that two boys Tom and Joe Harper didnt fight themselves, they made other little boys to fight, they liked to sit on an eminence and give orders to little boys-their soldiers.

) English: He worshipped this new angel with furtive eye, till he saw that she had discovered him; then he pretended he did not know she was present, and began to «show off» in all sorts of absurd boyish ways, in order to win her admiration. [18, p. 110]

Russian: Он поклонялся новому ангелу издали, пока не увидел, что она его заметила; тогда он притворился, будто не видит, что она здесь, и начал ломаться на разные лады, как это принято у мальчишек, стараясь ей понравиться и вызвать ее восхищение. [19, c. 112]: Describing somebody as a show-off carries an implicit endorsement of their capability: someone can only «show off» if they actually have something to show. An individual who seeks attention that they are not perceived to deserve is usually described much more dismissively as an attention-seeker or loudmouth. Tom wanted to pay the girls attention at him.means everything what is characteristic for boys in look, behavior, and attitude. Tom was acting just like other boys used to do.

) English: He said to himself that he would not speak a word, even when his aunt came in, but would sit perfectly still till she asked who did the mischief; and then he would tell, and there would be nothing so good in the world as to see that pet model «catch it.» [18, p. 115]

Russian: Том был в восторге. В таком восторге, что даже придержал язык и смолчал. Он решил, что не скажет ни слова, даже когда войдет тетя Полли, а будет сидеть смирно, пока она не спросит, кто это сделал. Вот тогда он скажет и полюбуется, как влетит «любимчику», — ничего не может быть приятнее! [19, c. 117]: Mark Twain used the expression pet model to Sid, to show that aunt Polly liked him more than Tom, because he was a good boy and always listened to her and of course it would be a surprise for her that her favourite nephew broke the sugar bowl. The expression «catch it» means that aunt Polly shouldve see what Sid had done. She will see the broken sugar bowl and figure out what happened.

) English: «Hold on, now, what ‘er you belting ME for? — Sid broke it!» [18, p. 120]

Russian: Да погодите же, за что вы меня лупите? Это Сид разбил! [19, c. 122]: Whater you belting me for? Means in other words why are you beating me. Tom was surprised why did aunt Polly beat him.

) English: Well, you didn’t get a lick amiss, I reckon. You been into some other audacious mischief when I wasn’t around, like enough.» [18, p. 124]

Russian: Гм! Ну, я думаю, тебе все же не зря влетело! Уж наверно, ты чего-нибудь еще натворил, пока меня тут не было. [19, c. 126]: The freedictionary.com gives the following definition of the slang amiss: out of the right or proper course, order, or condition; wrongly: to speak amiss. Take amiss, to be mistakenly offended at or resentful of; misunderstand. Aunt Polly meant that Tom didnt get punished unfairly. The audacious mischief means that Tom was expected to do something bad all the time.

) English: Then Tom girded up his loins, so to speak, and went to work to «get his verses. [18, p. 126]

Russian: После этого Том, как говорится, препоясал чресла и приступил к зазубриванию стихов из Библии. [19, c. 128]: The expression to gird up somebodys loins literally, means «put on your underwear.» It’s a idiom meaning preparing to do something difficult, «prepare for the worst» or «prepare to defend yourself.» It was very boring and difficult to sit and memorize the verses for Tom but he didnt have a choice.

) English: Tom bent all his energies to the memorizing of five verses, and he chose part of the Sermon on the Mount, because he could find no verses that were shorter. [18, p. 128]

Russian: Том приложил все силы, для того чтобы затвердить наизусть пять стихов, выбрав их из Нагорной проповеди, потому что нигде не нашел стихов короче. [19, c. 130]: The Sermon on the Mount is a collection of sayings and teachings of Jesus, which emphasizes his moral teaching found in the Gospel of Matthew. It is the first of the Five Discourses of Matthew and takes place relatively early in the Ministry of Jesus after he has been baptized by John the Baptist and preached in Galilee.

) English: «Never you mind, Tom. You know if I say it’s nice, it is nice.» «You bet you that’s so, Mary. All right, I’ll tackle it again.» [18, p. 133]

Russian: Не все ли тебе равно. Раз я сказала, что хорошую, значит, хорошую. — Ну да уж ты не обманешь. Ладно, я пойду приналягу. [19, c. 134]: Never mind is an idiom, which means dont bother, dont concern yourself. Mary wanted Tom to memorize the verses and didnt want him to pay attention to something else, she promised him that she will give him something if he memorize the verses.tackle is an old slang used in Tom Sawyers times. It means that he will try to memorize the verses without a big desire. Study was the hardest job for Tom, especially boring books about the Bible.

) English: True, the knife would not cut anything, but it was a «sure-enough» Barlow, and there was inconceivable grandeur in that — though where the Western boys ever got the idea that such a weapon could possibly be counterfeited to its injury is an imposing mystery and will always remain so, perhaps. [18, p. 136]

Russian: Правда, ножик совсем не резал, зато это была не какая-нибудь подделка, а настоящий ножик фирмы Барлоу, в чем и заключалось его непостижимое очарование; хотя откуда мальчики Западных штатов взяли, что это грозное оружие можно подделать и что подделка была бы хуже оригинала, совершенно неизвестно и, надо полагать, навсегда останется тайной. [19, c. 138]: Sure-enough Barlow means, that Tom was sure that the knife Mary gave him was Barlow knife. An inexpensive, one — or two-bladed pocketknife. I guess this type of knife was very popular among the boys of Toms age.

) English: The girl «put him to rights» after he had dressed himself; she buttoned his neat roundabout up to his chin, turned his vast shirt collar down over his shoulders, brushed him off and crowned him with his speckled straw hat. [18, p. 137]

Russian: После того как он оделся сам, Мэри привела его в порядок: она застегнула на нем чистенькую курточку до самого подбородка, отвернула книзу широкий воротник и расправила его по плечам, почистила Тома щеткой и надела ему соломенную шляпу с крапинками. [19, c. 139]: To put him to rights means to dress somebody, make him to look nice and ready to go outside. Tom didnt like to dress up, because he thought that only girls should look nice, but Mary liked when Tom looked good, so every Sunday she used to put him to rights.

) English: The next moment he was «showing off» with all his might — cuffing boys, pulling hair, making faces — in a word, using every art that seemed likely to fascinate a girl and win her applause. [18, p. 140]

Russian: В следующую минуту он уже старался из всех сил: колотил мальчишек, дергал их за волосы, строил рожи, — словом, делал все возможное, чтобы очаровать девочку и заслужить ее одобрение. [19, c. 142]: The idiom to win her applause shouldnt be understood literally, Mark Twain tried to say that Tom wanted to meet approval of the girl.

) English: Say — look! he’s a going to shake hands with him — he IS shaking hands with him! By jings, don’t you wish you was Jeff?» [18, p. 144]: Гляди, протянул ему руку — здоровается! Вот ловко! Скажи, небось хочется быть на месте Джефа? [19, c. 145]: By jings is an old slang, it is not used nowadays, but in times of Tom Sawyer it was something close to modern damn it! Damn is used: to declare (something) to be bad, unfit, invalid, or illegal; to condemn as a failure: to damn a play; to bring condemnation upon; ruin; to doom to eternal punishment or condemn to hell; to swear at or curse, using the word «damn». Damn the torpedoes! Full speed ahead!

) English: But there was no getting around it — here were the certified checks, and they were good for their face. [18, p. 146] Russian: Но делать было нечего — налицо были подписанные счета, и по ним следовало платить. [19, c. 148]: Mark Twain used the expression getting around it to explain us that mr. Walters couldnt do anything with that thing. Of course, mr. Walters knew that Tom didnt deserve the Bible book.

) English: These despised themselves, as being the dupes of a wily fraud, a guileful snake in the grass. [18, p. 148]

Russian: Они сами себя презирали за то, что дались в обман хитрому проныре и попались на удочку. [19, c. 150]: Here in this sentence Mark Twain compared Tom Sawyer with a guileful snake. Other boys were very mad at themselves that such a cunning and artful person got what he wanted with their help.

) English: Tom was introduced to the Judge; but his tongue was tied, his breath would hardly come, his heart quaked — partly because of the awful greatness of the man, but mainly because he was her parent. [18, p. 152]

Russian: Тома представили судье; но язык у него прилип к гортани, сердце усиленно забилось, и он едва дышал — отчасти подавленный грозным величием этого человека, но главным образом тем, что это был ее отец. [19, c. 154]: Tongue was tied is a slang, meaning that a person cant speak, cant find the words to say as from shyness, embarrassment, or surprise.

) English: Tom had no handkerchief, and he looked upon boys who had as snobs. [18, p. 154]

Russian: У Тома платка и в заводе не было, поэтому всех мальчиков, у которых были платки, онсчитал франтами. [19, c. 156]: A snob, guilty of snobbery, is someone who adopts the worldview that some people are inherently inferior to him/her for any one of a variety of reasons, including real or supposed intellect, wealth, education, ancestry, etc. Often, the form of snobbery reflects the offending individual’s socio-economic background. For example, a common snobbery of the affluent is the affectation that wealth is either the cause or result of superiority, or both, as in the case of privileged children., a form of snobbery can be adopted by someone not a part of that group; a pseudo-intellectual is a type of snob. Such a snob imitates the manners, adopts the worldview, and affects the lifestyle of a social class of people to which he or she aspires, but does not yet belong, and to which he or she may never belong.snob is perceived by those being imitated as an arriviste, perhaps nouveau riche or parvenu, and the elite group closes ranks to exclude such outsiders, often by developing elaborate social codes, symbolic status and recognizable marks of language. The snobs, in response, refine their behavior model.other words, a snob is a stuck up person who thinks they’re «all that» and better than everyone else.

) English: The boys all hated him, he was so good. And besides, he had been «thrown up to them» so much. [18, p. 156]

Russian: Зато все мальчишки его терпеть не могли, до того он был хороший; кроме того, Вилли постоянно ставили им в пример. [19, c. 157]: It means that he was always saying stuff about how he was so much better than and superior to them.

) English: At church «sociables», he was always called upon to read poetry; and when he was through, the ladies would lift up their hands and let them fall helplessly in their laps, and «wall» their eyes, and shake their heads, as much as to say, «Words cannot express it; it is too beautiful, TOO beautiful for this mortal earth.» [18, p. 158] Russian: На церковных собраниях его всегда просили почитать стихи, и как только он умолкал, все дамы поднимали кверху руки и, словно обессилев, роняли их на колени, закатывали глаза и трясли головами, будто говоря: «Словами этого никак не выразишь, это слишком хорошо, слишком хорошо для нашей грешной земли». [18, c. 160]: The word socialbles means that a person is friendly and interacts very well with strangers. The minister was a person, who was very involved in social life and always helps other people. To wall their eyes means that they rolled up their eyes. Probably woman were very admired to listen to ministers words and they were very happy at that moment.

) English: After the hymn had been sung, the Rev. Mr. Sprague turned himself into a bulletin-board, and read off «notices» of meetings and societies and things till it seemed that the list would stretch out to the crack of doom — a queer custom which is still kept up in America, even in cities, away here in this age of abundant newspapers. [18, p. 161]

Russian: После того как пропели гимн, его преподобие мистер Спрэг повернулся к доске объявлений и стал читать извещения о собраниях, сходках и тому подобном, пока всем не начало казаться, что он так и будет читать до втoрого пришествия, — странный обычай, которого до сих пор придерживаются в Америке, даже в больших городах, невзирая на множество газет. [19, c. 163]: The literal meaning of the expression the crack of doom is (New Testament) day at the end of time following Armageddon when God will decree the fates of all individual humans according to the good and evil of their earthly lives. Mark Twain used this expression just to explain us that mr. Sprague could talk for a very long time and it was very hard to stop him.

) English: He was restive all through it; he kept tally of the details of the prayer, unconsciously — for he was not listening, but he knew the ground of old, and the clergyman’s regular route over it — and when a little trifle of new matter was interlarded, his ear detected it and his whole nature resented it; he considered additions unfair, and scoundrelly. [18, p. 163]

Russian: И когда пастор вставлял от себя что-нибудь новенькое, Том ловил ухом непривычные слова, и вся его натура возмущалась: он считал такие прибавления нечестными и жульническими. [19, c. 165]: A trifle is a thing of little or no value or significance. The minister liked to add something from himself to those words in the book.

) English: The minister gave out his text and droned along monotonously through an argument that was so prosy that many a head by and by began to nod — and yet it was an argument that dealt in limitless fire and brimstone and thinned the predestined elect down to a company so small as to be hardly worth the saving. [18, p. 167]

Russian: Проповедник прочел текст из Библии и пустился рассуждать скучным голосом о чем-то таком неинтересном, что многие прихожане начали клевать носом, хотя, в сущности, речь шла о преисподней и вечных муках, а число праведников, которым предназначено было спастись, пастор довел до такой ничтожной цифры, что и спасать-то их не стоило. [19, c. 168]: This sentence is difficult to understand, because it was written in Mark Twains language. The phrase to nod a head means usually an approval signal, which means that the person agrees with you. But in this sentence the phrase to nod a head means, that everybody was so bored by ministers speech that they were almost sleeping.

) English: «Tom, why didn’t you wake me sooner? Oh, Tom, DON’T! It makes my flesh crawl to hear you. Tom, what is the matter?» [18, p. 167] Russian: Том, чего же ты меня раньше не разбудил? Ой, Том, перестань. Просто мороз по коже дерет тебя слушать. Том, да что с тобой? [19, c. 168]: To make (someone’s) flesh crawl means «to cause someone’s skin to feel funny». Sid was meaning that he was very scared of Toms condition.

) English: «Rubbage! I don’t believe it!» [18, p. 168]

Russian: Пустяки! Не верю! [19, c. 169]: Rubbage is an old slang, which is not used nowadays; people changed this word to another one. Rubbish is like trash when someone says this movie or song is rubbish there reffering to it as junk and calling it bad if they say something u said was rubbish they could even be reffering to what u said was a lie. Aunt Polly said rubbage, because she used not to believe Tom, and Sids words that he was dying sounded very silly to her.

) English: «Oh, auntie, my sore toe’s mortified!» [18, p. 170]

Russian: Ой, тетечка, у меня на пальце гангрена! [19, c. 171]: Tom said mortified and he was meaning the foot gangrene. Of course, he didnt know the name of the disease, which could help him to stay at home and not to go to school.

) English: «Oh, please, auntie, don’t pull it out. It don’t hurt any more. I wish I may never stir if it does. [18, p. 171]: Ой, тетечка, только не надо его дергать. Теперь он уже совсем не болит. Помереть мне на этом месте, ни чуточки не болит. [19, c. 172]

Analysis: I may never stir if it does. This expression means that a person is swearing. Tom was swearing that his tooth doesnt hurt. 63) English: His heart was heavy, and he said with a disdain which he did not feel that it wasn’t anything to spit like Tom Sawyer; but another boy said, «Sour grapes!» and he wandered away a dismantled hero. [18, p. 171]

Russian: Он был очень этим огорчен и сказал пренебрежительно, что не видит ничего особенного в том, чтобы плевать, как Том Сойер, но другой мальчик ответил только: «Зелен виноград!» — и развенчанному герою пришлось со стыдом удалиться. [19, c. 172]: The idiom «sour grapes» has its history. In an old fable by Aesop, a hungry fox noticed a bunch of juicy grapes hanging from a vine. After several failed attempts to reach the grapes, the fox gave up and insisted that he didn’t want them anyway because they were probably sour. Nowadays when somebody expresses sour grapes, it means that they put down something simply because they can’t have it. The phrase is often used incorrectly as another way to express bitterness or resentment.

) English: Shortly Tom came upon the juvenile pariah of the village, Huckleberry Finn, son of the town drunkard. [18, p. 172]

Russian: Вскоре Том повстречал юного парию Гекльберри Финна, сына первого сент-питерсбергского пьяницы. [19, c. 173]: The word pariah, which can be used for anyone who is a social outcast, independent of social position, recalls a much more rigid social system, which made only certain people pariahs. The caste system of India placed pariahs, also known as Untouchables, very low in society. The word pariah, which we have extended in meaning, came into English from Tamil paṛaiyar, the plural of paṛaiyan, the caste name, which literally means «(hereditary) drummer» and comes from the word paṛai, the name of a drum used at certain festivals. The word is first recorded in English in 1613. Its use in English and its extension in meaning probably owe much to the long period of British rule in India.

) English: No, sir, you can bet he didn’t, becuz he’s the wartiest boy in this town; and he wouldn’t have a wart on him if he’d knowed how to work spunk-water [18, p. 172] Russian: Ну еще бы, конечно, не так: то-то у него и бородавок уйма, как ни у кого другого во всем городе; а если б он знал, как обращаться с гнилой водой, то ни одной не было бы. [19, c. 173]: The wartiest boy means that the boy had many warts all over his body. The word «wart» is a noun and cant be used as an adjective. But two boys, Huckleberry Finn and Tom Sawyer were not one of the diligent boys and this was the manner of their conversation.

) English: Devils don’t slosh around much of a Sunday, I don’t reckon.» [18, p. 173]

Russian: Не думаю, чтобы чертям можно было везде шляться по воскресеньям. [19, c. 174]: The slang slosh means to walk around. Devils dont walk around much of a Sunday, I dont reckon.

) English: Tom got out a bit of paper and carefully unrolled it. Huckleberry viewed it wistfully. The temptation was very strong. At last he said: «Is it genuwyne?» [18, p. 174]

Russian: Том вытащил и осторожно развернул бумажку с зубом. Гекльберри с завистью стал его разглядывать. Искушение было слишком велико. Наконец он сказал: — А он настоящий? [19, c. 175]: It is more correct to say genuine, than genywyne. Genuine is a word that can be used to mean, truly, or something is not a counterfeit. In relation to an individual, a genuine person is one whom is always sincere and tells no lie. It can be regarded as one of the characters a human being can depict.

) English: «Thomas Sawyer, this is the most astounding confession I have ever listened to. No mere ferule will answer for this offence. Take off your jacket.» [18, p. 175] Russian: Томас Сойер, это самое поразительное признание, какое я только слышал. Одной линейки мало за такой проступок. Снимите вашу куртку. [19, c. 176]

Analysis: «No mere ferule» — a «ferule» is a device such as a cane, plank of wood (called a paddle), or other device used to spank a bad child; in this case, the schoolmaster told Tom, who was to be punished for tardiness, that Tom would not be spanked by a paddle but with something else;

) English: She observed it, «made a mouth» at him and gave him the back of her head for the space of a minute. [18, p. 176]

Russian: Она это заметила, презрительно поджала губы и на минуту даже повернулась к Тому спиной. [19, c. 177]: To make a mouth is an idiomatic expression, which means to make a face, usually an unhappy one. The girl wanted to show her contempt in such way.

) English: «Yes I do, indeed I do. Please let me.» [18, p. 177]: Нет, интересно. Покажите, пожалуйста. [19, c. 178]: The word indeed means in fact; in truth (used for emphasis or confirmation)

) English:«I been to the circus three or four times — lots of times. Church ain’t shucks to a circus. There’s things going on at a circus all the time. [18, p. 178]

Russian: А я сколько раз бывал, три или даже четыре раза. Церковь дрянь по сравнению с цирком. В цирке все время что-нибудь представляют. [19, c. 179]

Analysis: Church aint shucks to a circus. It means the church is nothing when compared with a circus, that a circus has greater value and significance than church matters, that entertainment is much more lively and interesting than going to church any day. 72) English: She was still standing back there in the corner, sobbing, with her face to the wall. Tom’s heart smote him. [18, p. 179]

Russian: Бекки все стояла в углу, лицом к стене, и всхлипывала. Том почувствовал угрызения совести. [19, c. 180]

Analysis: Heart smote him an idiomatic expression which means a sense of guilt for doing something wrong. Tom felt himself guilty, because Becky was crying.

) English: So she sat down to cry again and upbraid herself; and by this time the scholars began to gather again, and she had to hide her griefs and still her broken heart and take up the cross of a long, dreary, aching afternoon, with none among the strangers about her to exchange sorrows with. [18, p. 179]

Russian: Она села и опять заплакала, упрекая себя; а в это время в школу уже начали собираться другие дети; ей пришлось затаить свое горе, унять свое страдающее сердце и нести крест весь этот долгий, скучный, тяжелый день, а кругом были одни чужие, и ей не с кем было поделиться своим горем. [19, c. 180]: «Take up the cross» — an idiom with a biblical reference to someone who suffers as did Jesus carrying his cross to his ultimate scene of death.

) English: No — better still, he would join the Indians, and hunt buffaloes and go on the warpath in the mountain ranges and the trackless great plains of the Far West, and away in the future come back a great chief, bristling with feathers, hideous with paint, and prance into Sunday-school, some drowsy summer morning, with a blood-curdling war-whoop, and sear the eyeballs of all his companions with unappeasable envy. [18, p. 180]

) English: All the old graves were sunken in, there was not a tombstone on the place; round-topped, worm-eaten boards staggered over the graves, leaning for support and finding none. [18, p. 181]

Russian: Старые могилы провалились; ни один могильный камень не стоял, как полагается, на своем месте; изъеденные червями, трухлявые надгробия клонились над могилами, словно ища поддержки и не находя ее. [19, c. 182]: «Leaning for support and finding none» — a humorous phrase used by the author when describing the headboards on the graves that are leaning and falling down;NOTE: only wealthy people could afford headstones (tombstones) and the necessary engraving on them; the average person had a simple wooden headboard that would decay over a short period of time and need replacing;

) English: Some vague figures approached through the gloom, swinging an old-fashioned tin lantern that freckled the ground with innumerable little spangles of light. Presently Huckleberry whispered with a shudder: [18, p. 182]

Russian: Какие-то темные фигуры приближались к ним во мраке, раскачивая старый жестяной фонарь, от которого на землю ложились бесчисленные пятнышки света, точно веснушки. Тут Гек прошептал, весь дрожа: [19, c. 183]: Tin lantern — a (usually) rectangular box made out of tin metal, with many holes punched into the sides in order to allow the light from the candle to shine outside; this type of lantern was a «pierced tin lantern» because of the multitude of pierced holes;NOTE: in the days before flashlights, a lantern allowed a candle to be taken outside because the lantern protected the candle from going out if it was rainy or windy outside; by the mid-19th century, pierced tin lanterns had been replaced with candle lanterns that used glass plates on the sides in order to allow light to pass more freely;

) English: Every stump that started up in their path seemed a man and an enemy, and made them catch their breath; and as they sped by some outlying cottages that lay near the village, the barking of the aroused watch-dogs seemed to give wings to their feet. [18, p. 183]

Russian: Каждый пень, выраставший перед ними из мрака, они принимали за человека, за врага и цепенели от ужаса; а когда они пробегали мимо уединенно стоявших домиков, уже совсем близко от городка, то от лая проснувшихся сторожевых собак у них на ногах словно выросли крылья. [19, c. 184]: «Give wings to their feet» — idiomatic expression meaning that they ran so fast that it was if they were flying;

) English: «If Doctor Robinson dies, I reckon hanging’ll come of it.» [18, p. 184]

Russian: Если доктор Робинсон умрет, то кончится виселицей. [19, c. 185]

Analysis: Hanging — the term used to describe capital (death penalty) punishment, this punishment consisting of tying the criminals hands, placing a tightened noose of rope around the criminals neck, and dropping him a proscribed distance in order to break his neck and causing death; HISTORICAL NOTE: during the 19th century, it was still common for capital punishment, usually in the form of hangings, to be carried out in the courthouse square for all to see; the public, including children, were allowed to witness this punishment until the practice was outlawed in the early 20th century;

) English: That Injun devil wouldn’t make any more of drownding us than a couple of cats, if we was to squeak ’bout this and they didn’t hang him. [18, p. 185]

Russian: Сам знаешь: если этого индейского дьявола не повесят, он не задумается нас утопить, как котят. [19, c. 186]: «Drownding us than a couple of cats» — (drowning is misspelled) metaphor used to convey the fact that Tom and Huck would be killed, «if they talked», as easily as drowning a pair of cats;NOTE: up until the mid-20th century, it was common to rid oneself of stray cats by placing them in a feed sack, tying it closed, and throwing the sack into the river, drowning the cats; today, this practice would be considered inhumane and could cost a perpetrator a fine and/or jail time;

) English: This final feather broke the camel’s back. [18, p. 186]

Russian: Последнее перышко сломало спину верблюда. [19, c. 187]

Analysis: «This final feather broke the camels back» — idiom for something that happens that is the final thing that causes a result to take place;

Conclusion

English is the chief language of international business and academic conferences, and the leading language of international tourism. English is the main language of popular music, advertising, home computers and video games. Most of the scientific, technological and academic information in the world is expressed in English. International communication expends very fast. The English language becomes the means of international communication, the language of trade, education, politics, and economics. People have to communicate with each other. It is very important for them to understand foreigners and be understood by them. In this case the English language comes to be one but very serious problem. A word comes to be a very powerful means of communication but also can be a cause of a great misunderstanding if it is not clearly understood by one of the speakers.is more or less common in nearly all ranks of society and in every walk of life at the present day. Slang words and expressions have crept into our everyday language, and so insidiously, that they have not been detected by the great majority of speakers, and so have become part and parcel of their vocabulary on an equal footing with the legitimate words of speech. They are called upon to do similar service as the ordinary words used in everyday conversation-to express thoughts and desires and convey meaning from one to another.have researched different types of slang in English language, people use slang in music, art, science, medicine, agriculture, internet, military, business, Bible, literature.English idiom is a group of words with a special meaning different from the meanings of its constituent words. Strictly speaking, idioms are expressions that are not readily understandable from their literal meaning of individual elements. In a broad sense, idiom may include colloquialisms, Catchphrases, slang expressions, proverbs, etc. They form an important part of the English vocabulary. The first difficulty that a translator comes across is being with an idiomatic expression. Generally speaking, the more difficult an expression is to understand and the less sense it makes in a given context, the more difficult an expression is to understand and the less sense it makes in a given context, the more likely a translator will recognize it as an idiom. Because they do not make sense of interpreted literally, the high-lighted expressions in the following text are easy to recognize as idioms.way in which an idiom can be translated into another language depends on many factors. It is not only a question on many factors. It is not only a question of whether an idiom with a similar meaning is available in the target language. Other factors include, for example, the significance of the specific lexical items which constitute the idiom, i.e. whether they are manipulated elsewhere in the source text as well as the appropriateness or inappropriateness of using idiomatic language in a given register in the target language.main aim of my paperwork was to analyse slangs and idioms on Mark Thwain’s works from English into Russian. I have chosen my favourite book «The Adventures of Tom Sawyer». This is one of the best works of Mark Twain. I hope that this paperwork will help students to understand slangs and idioms in English language and use them in practice.

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